Monday, September 30, 2019

Provide Leadership Across the Organisation

PROVIDE LEADERSHIP ACROSS THE ORGANISATION ASSESSMENT BY CHARLOTTE MCMANUS LEADER: The 14th Dalai Lama 1. INTRODUCTION The reason for selecting the Dalai Lama is because he has achieved many things in his life and is now considered amongst many researchers and writers, as one of the greatest leaders of all time. He has been a leader of a country, a religion, and more significantly, the leader of the spiritual world. He is a fascinating character that has experienced many difficult situations which increases the intrigue of this leader and the skills that he possess. He leads and promotes a way of life that encapsulates all humans, in all countries, of all religions, and uses very unique leadership skills, which will be very interesting to study. 1. 2BACKGROUND The Dalai Lama is a re-incarnation of a long line (13 before him) of â€Å"tulkus  (an enlightened Tibetan Buddhist lama/teacher) who descend from the  bodhisattva  Avalokitesvara†. The first Dalai Lama was Gendun Drup who lived in 1391 – 1474. Tenzin Gyatso was enthroned as the 14th Dalai Lama in 1940 when he was five years old, and assumed â€Å"temporal responsibility of Tibet† (www. alailamafoundation. org) when he was 15 years old. He experienced an invasion of Tibet by the Chinese and escaped into exile in India when he was 24, making him the first ever Dalai Lama ever to leave Tibet. The Dalai Lama has dedicated his life to promoting a world free of violence and suffering, where all nature can live in peace and harmony together, irrespective of nationality and religious beliefs. He believes that through meditation, compassion and the respect for all life, each person will achieve happiness and contentment in their life. 1. 3ACHIEVEMENTS The Dalai Lama has achieved many things in his life to date, including being awarded with one of the most recognised awards in the world in 1989; The Nobel Peace Prize, which is a true indication of his world-recognised contributions to promote peace. To achieve this award the Dalai Lama has spent his entire life striving to create a more peaceful environment for the human race, with a great focus on reclaiming human rights in Tibet. This mission has seen him travel all over the world, meeting with leaders of many countries presenting new initiatives and being relentless in his message and strength to resolve these issues. These include his appeals to the United Nations during his exile, in 1959, 1961 and 1965, which resulted in three resolutions being adopted by the General Assembly. In 1987 he presented the â€Å"Five Point Peace Plan† to the Congressional Humans Rights Caucus. This was an appeal to the US Congress for the restoration of human rights in Tibet and to announce it as a zone of peace, therefore stopping the dumping of nuclear waste in Tibet, as well as urging â€Å"earnest negotiations on the future of Tibet and relations between the Tibetan and Chinese people† (http://nobelprize. org). In 1989 he offered the â€Å"Middle Way Proposal† at the European Parliament, which was not accepted, however, the Dalai Lama again proposed this in 1996 and 1997, when a preliminary opinion poll was held and the policy was adopted by Parliament. In April 1991, Tenzin Gyatsu travelled to the US and met with George Bush, which ended a boycott with the nation, and also resulted in US Congress passing the â€Å"Tibetan Policy Act 2002†, formalising US support for dialogue between China and the Dalai Lama, and also providing funding to Tibet for development projects within the country. This was a very strategic decision ade by the Dalai to create a valuable relationship with one of the most powerful counties in the world, and also resulted in the US awarding the Dalai Lama with the highest civilian award, the Congressional Gold Medal, in 2007. Whilst negotiating with parliaments and congress worldwide, the Dalai Lama has rebuilt communities for those living in exile, set up educational, cultural and religious institutions all over the world to assist in maintaining the Tibetan culture and teach Buddhism. He still continues to lead a population of an estimated â€Å"500 million Buddhists worldwide† (http://www. thedhamma. com). 1. 4LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS It is very clear that the Dalai Lama’s objectives are to restore â€Å"equality, respect, trust and mutual benefit† (www. nobelprize. org) between Tibet and China. His concerns are for â€Å"all members of the human family† (www. nobelprize. org), and he has remained consistent and relentless in his message which has resulted in loyalty and dedication from his followers. Personal values are very important to this leader, and he sets a moral example to his followers, yet also during the most difficult situations he still appears to act rationally. For example, it is reported that â€Å"20% of the Tibetan population have died in combat with the Chinese† (www. dityabirla. com), yet he consistently acts with integrity, compassion and empathy, whilst remaining strategic and controlled in his negotiations with this nation. The Dalai Lama’s values and morals are what lead him; this encourages his followers to also align their values with his. He sticks to his principles of right conduct, and therefore sets a moral example to his followers, which results in their unwavering support for him and his cause. These values and morals have prevented the Dalai Lama from behaving violently when in a threatening situation as they are part of his psychological makeup, and moral reasoning. Theory Y is applicable in this scenario as the Dalai Lama leads on the premise that people are intrinsically motivated, meaning that how they feel will impact and influence them more than external motivation. Because of his spiritual strengths the Dalai Lama has developed the highest stage of moral reasoning, which as Kohlberg has expressed is not always possible. Whilst Gyatsu’s morals remain the most important driver in his leadership, his culture is also something he is very proud of and is something that he is consistently working to retain. This is evident through his part in the leading the development of towns of Tibetans in exile across the world that celebrate and acknowledge the Tibetan culture, in particular, Buddhism, which has also clearly driven his behaviours and attitudes towards life. There are numerous groups following the Dalai Lama’s Buddhist teachings, with followers travelling all over the world to get the opportunity to meet or listen to his teachings live. This group cohesion ensures reciprocal influence and maximises the influence of his messages, which is another reason why the Dalai Lama spends so much of his time travelling. He regularly visits these groups to minimise interpersonal conflicts between the groups. It also allows for new groups to form at each event, which results in the group development process repeating itself throughout the world. The Dalai Lama’s leadership is both authentic and servant leadership. He promotes self-awareness, openness and inclusivity within the human family, yet he also acts as a servant for the people of Tibet to fight for their right to live in peace. I would say that the Dalai Lama is a transformational leader who provides vision for his followers and inspires them to â€Å"embrace his vision† of peace and happiness for all. He allows them to dream of what they can achieve, then designs a way for them to achieve it, and then continues to develop it through initiatives and programs that allow the vision to materialise, as we have seen in section 1. 3 â€Å"Achievements†. 1. 5TYPE OF POWER Due to his position within the Buddhism community the Dalai Lama possesses referent power over his followers, this has developed over a long period of time, which has allowed his followers to witness his leadership skills and what he is prepared to experience/sacrifice for his beliefs. This has resulted in his following growing consistently over the past 70 years, as people trust, respect and love him, therefore increasing his influence and support. As it is believed that the Dalai Lama is a reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama he also possesses a level of legitimate power that has been passed down to him when he was enthroned as the 14th Dalai Lama. This legitimate power would only be relevant to those that believe in Buddhism, therefore believe in the concept of reincarnation. This legitimate power is not a power that the Dalai Lama exercises, as he claims that he is â€Å"a simple monk from Tibet, I am no one special† (Nobel Prize acceptance speech). This claim also contributes to the respect that his followers have for him and also helps them relate to him through his personalised leadership, resulting in stronger bonds being formed. The Dalai Lama is also a community leader, as he does not have position power from any country, and also has minimal resources to communicate his message through. He also possesses the skills to build social capital, as discussed above and mobilisation, through the travel he does all over the world to communicate with his followers. 1. 6PERSONAL TRAITS The Dalai Lama uses his personal traits to communicate with people more effectively, which in turn ensures he gains their trust and respect. He is often smiling at people, listens intently, and always maintains eye contact with the listening or speaker. He appears to be comfortable discussing all topics and never interrupts the speaker during conversation, but listens, encourages them to continue and then responds calmly. The Dalai Lama speaks three languages, Tibetan, Chinese and English. This ensures he can communicate and connect strongly with his fellow countrymen in Tibet. It is also important that he can communicate effectively with those that he has conflicts with, the Chinese. English is also a language he has learnt, as this is the most common language spoken in the Western world and therefore means maximum exposure of his message to those across the world. When people talk about their encounter with the Dalai Lama, many mention his insatiable laugh and kind smile that result in them â€Å"warming to him† (www. youtube. com) and instantly wanting to listen and absorb his message. It has been reported by some, that he possesses an aura that has an amazingly positive effect on a person and is communicated to the receiver purely through facial expressions, including eye contact. As these aspects of the communication process makes up 50% of the message, it therefore ensures clarity and understanding for the receiver of the message. . 7LESSONS TO BE LEARNT The Dalai Lama has a lot to teach those that analyse his leadership skills, but I would say that the most profound teaching is that you must connect with your followers, by gaining their trust and commitment. This can only be achieved by being consistent in your message, whilst acting with integrity, and providing your group or team with a vision, and assisting with achieving the fi nal goal through support and development of the vision. It is also important to leave regrets behind and take forward the lessons which have been learnt by past mistakes, which ensures group cohesion, therefore maximising the chances of achieving that goal or objective. To be a successful leder you must be passionate about achieving your objective, as this will be communicated to your followers, therefore encouraging loyalty and passion iin them, whilst inspiring them to achieve their goal. Mentoring is also another important aspect of leadership, as it ssists in the changing of behaviours and also encourages aspirations in the less experienced, whilst passing on valuable skills and lessons learnt from a more experienced leader. This has been apparent by the lessons and support that the Dalai Lama has received from many leaders around the world, including religious political and organisational, and also by the time he spent as a child learning about Buddhism and Tibetan culture. 1. 8CONCLUSION In conclusion, it has been very interesting and inspiring to read about this leader, i have learnt about many skills that are required to be a successful and inspirational leader. However, this spiritual leader may have many more skills that I believe cannot be duplicated without many hours of meditation and the study of his culture. Yet, this in itself highlights how effective the Dalai Lama is in communicating his message in relation to Buddhism, and how inspirational he really is.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Play Critique of Cabaret

Cabaret takes place in the years 1929 to 1930 Berlin before Hitler’s appointment as chancellor. The play follows Cliff Bradshaw, an aspiring American writer, and Sally Bowles, a performer at the Kit Kat Klub and their friends through the trying times before the Nazis. The story shows the struggles of those torn between what they want, and what is acceptable and how blind some were to the problems staring them right in the face. In the words of the emcee: â€Å"Leave your troubles outside! So-life is disappointing?Forget it! In here, life is beautiful-the girls are beautiful-even the orchestra is beautiful! Willkommen im Cabaret! † As the story unfolds, we see how this blindness affects those who would rather not see. Cabaret is the first professional play that I have seen. I did not know what to expect and told myself that no matter what, to just make the most of it. There was no need, it was a truly captivating show that had me laughing and crying and dancing along the whole way through. I even talked a few of my friends into going so I could see it a second time.The story was easy to follow and I thought the characters, the costumes and the performance as a whole were good, but there were a few problems that I thought needed work. The first thing that caught me was, of course, the emcee, played by Lee Ernst. He immediately got my attention with his flamboyant costume and held it with his charismatic and energetic attitude. When he first came out on stage, he addressed the audience directly, asking us to leave our troubles outside and enjoy the wonders of the cabaret.It made me feel like I was actually sitting in the club, and not out in the audience of a play. Throughout the entire production he would pull us in and even brought audience members on stage to do a dance with him. He had an excellent ability of setting the mood for the audience and keeping us wanting more. The rest of the characters were also very well played and the actors did a g ood job of portraying their respective personalities. They were believable and real, and truly made me feel for them.The only one I thought was a little awkward in his role was Geoffrey Hemingway, who played Cliff. There were times in the play where he seemed to know his line, but didn’t quite use the right inflection, as if he knew the words, but forgot what his character was supposed to be feeling. Other than that, I think that the actors were great. The second thing that impressed me was how simple the sets were. There was usually only one or two pieces that told you where the scene was taking place, but along with the lighting and sound, it was easily put together and it worked very well.The one problem I had with it was during the play I was under the impression that the room with the couch was some kind of common room for the building, but while reading the study guide, found out that it was supposed to be Fraulein Schneider’s room. This confused me because I don ’t get why Fraulein Kost would be bringing her sailors through Fraulein Schneider’s room, but I guess they needed some place to show that part of the story.Also, there were times when there was just too much happening on stage and I got dizzy and confused as to what I should be paying attention to. Over all, I was impressed with their use of space and simplicity. Cabaret was performed on a thrust stage which also added to the feeling of unity and closeness between the performers and the audience. I think that in a play that is meant to make you feel like a part of the show, which Cabaret definitely is, this is important. It was one more way of pulling the audience in and making us â€Å"part† of the show.With this stage the action was happening within almost arm length of the front row and there was even a point at the beginning right before the show that actors were talking to the audience. It helped us relate more to the story then if they used a proscenium st age and told the story â€Å"at us†. Next, I think that the costumes were perfect, they did a wonderful job of depicting the many characters. They were sexy and scandalous for those at the Kit Kat Klub, yet did not hinder the actors from doing the many dance numbers, and showed the modesty and decency of characters like Fraulein Schneider.Along with the scenery, the costumes helped so there was no guess work as to where and when the story took place, the lifestyles lived by the various characters, their personalities and who they were as people. I have to add that after seeing the show, me and some of my friends, even one of the guys, wanted to dress up as dancers from the Kit Kat Klub for Halloween. I think they did a terrific job and instead of distracting, they made the story that much more entertaining, especially the guys in fishnets!Lastly, I thought all the singing and dancing really enhanced the show. I was worried that it would be hard to follow the story line with t hem singing parts of the script, but not at all. I think that it livened up the show and made scenes that would have been boring really great. One example of this was the scene where Fraulein Schneider sings â€Å"So What? †. It was a fun way of her character giving us a little history, without just going into a biography.Also, songs like â€Å"Two Ladies†, â€Å"Tomorrow Belongs To Me† and â€Å"If You Could See Her† express the feelings, viewpoints and ideas of the play in a manner that would have been much more difficult to do in conversation. All in all I thought it was a wonderful show and I think that everything worked well and flowed nicely. The few problems that I did have were minor and didn’t take away from the overall experience. The actors, director, and everyone else who had a part in this show should be proud, they made me truly enjoy myself and am looking forward to seeing more.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Business plan, Market, Analysis, Construction

Abstract Aims to take advantage of the construction boom in the North West UK and expand their company. Also another aims to reach by the daughter company to expand their activities within their existing markets.As a Management Consultant specializing within the Construction Industry, the company approached was looking to take advantage of the construction boom in the North West UK and expand their company. The business is a family owned company.As a Managing consultant, I have been employed to assess the viabilities of these two proposals and to produce a business plan that could be presented at the bank to gain financial backing for the expansion.I was able to make an ASSESSMENT CRITERIA, which were listed below:†¢ Understanding and application of theories †¢ Correct use of terminology, techniques, etc. †¢ Relevance of examples and scenarios †¢ Quality of referencing and sourcing of material (evidence) †¢ Quality of presentation †¢ Correct structuring of the reportBusiness Plan:Constructed â€Å"mega-projects† are readily recognizable for their form and function, and in many cases, are awe-inspiring.   Major buildings and bridges give identities to cities and nations and evoke a sense of pride in the people. â€Å"The construction industry is a vast system of engineers, architects, laborers, craftsmen, material, equipment and tool suppliers, and project owners responsible for building these structures (†.   The scope of the industry is all encompassing, including every type of facility imaginable.   Roads, bridges, mass transit, airports, schools, retail and commercial buildings, industrial and manufacturing facilities, drinking water systems, wastewater treatment facilities, dams and power generation, solid waste facilities, and hazardous waste treatment and disposal projects all benefit society and bolster our national security.   The construction industry seminar focused on projects and issues that have a potential mobilization involvement.Executive Summary stated that, a home office in Yellowknife, NT will be established the first year of operations to reduce start up costs. The founder of the firm is a professional engineer with eighteen years of progressive and responsible experience. After the operation has started it was found out that the first year operation increased till up to 3rd year operation as well. Notice the sales amount in dollars increases as well as dollar profits together with the percent sales/profit.The firm will specialize in providing three dimensional modeling and visualization to our clients. State-of-the-art analysis and design tools will be an integral part of the business plan. Implementation of a quality control and assurance program will provide a focus for production work.The highlights of the executive summary shown in a bar graph presentation as analyzed in this manner, red bar represents which is increasing dollars from year 2000 to the year 2002. Also apple green color represents gross margin, which is also increasing order and while net profit increased in increasing order as well.Objectives were seen to have the following:Achieve 20% of market value at the end of the third year of operation.Increase gross margin to 80% by the third year of operations.Company has mission, as stated here:Our mission is to provide clients across Canada's North with structural engineering services for all types of buildings, from concept planning through to completion, with a highly skilled professional team working together, using common sense and practical.  Key to success has developed experience as stated.Provide professional quality services on time and on budget.Develop a follow-up strategy to gauge performance with all clients.Implement and maintain a quality control and assurance policy.Company Summary:Structure All Ltd. is a new company, which provides professional engineering design services for clients that manage, maintain, and plan for residential, commercial, and industrial type buildings. Our focus will be the public sector market in remote communities across Canada's North.Company Ownership will be,Structure All Ltd. will be created as a limited liability company. Philip D. Nolan will privately own the company. Leslie C. Goit will also be listed as a Director.Start up summary:Our start-up expenses amount to $13,000, which allows for initial legal expenses, licenses, permits, stationary, specialty software, office equipment, and furniture. In addition to these start-up costs, an initial balance of $7,000 will be placed in the company accounts. The software purchases include an allowance of $5,000 for AutoCAD ® 2000, $1,800 for National Master Specifications, and $200 for QuickBooks ® (accounting package).Total start-up expenses amounted to $13,000, which has the big values, compared to other expenses. Office equipment, other expenses and permits holder and legal service also ha s same amount, which is the least expenses incurred.For a company start-up summary goes this way, investments leads small amount while profit is big and the sales amount becomes big.Start-up expenses have the following: Professional Liability Insurance is $1,200, Professional Liability Insurance is $1,200, web site development is $600 and lastly business licenses are $500.So overall total an expense coincides with the total assets.Market AnalysisCompany Locations and Facilities We will establish a home office in Yellowknife, NT in order to reduce start-up costs. The office space is estimated to be 150 square feet. We will be installing a dedicated fax line as well as a high-speed Internet connection. An interactive website will also be developed which will serve as a marketing tool.ServicesStructure All Ltd. offers complete structural engineering services. We will focus on buildings with the following Use and Occupancies, like the company is project oriented where each project invol ves. It also offers Project Consulting, Forensic Investigations, Project Management, and Dispute Resolution. Further more it also caters Restoration Engineering, and Inspections.Describing offers services was noted to be Competitive in the sense that offers their clients superior service, implement a quality assurance and control program for all projects undertaken, systematic manner of sorting and retrieving a library of structural elements and assemblies will be implemented.The sales literature was describe to be a brochure system. Brochure inserts will be maintained as individual sheets to facilitate their assembly in any custom situation.Greatly market analysis will be describe as Structure All Ltd. will focus on traditional Architect/Engineering (A/E) contracts. The owner will usually contract the A/E to perform planning and design services. These design services include preparation of plans, specifications, and estimates.Types of project distributions were having guidelines to follow as*Architecture Design (65%).*Structural Design (10%).*Mechanical Design (15%).*Electrical design (10%)Knowing the Market Segmentation will describe as a manner the market for engineering services that is, established Architectural and Engineering firms, territorial and Federal Governmental Departments.Market analysis Pie can summarize accordingly; Service Business Analysis, Business Participants, which were describe in as much as the manner showed. The major clients within the Territorial Governments include: Department of Education, Department of Transportation, and Department of Education, Department of Transportation, Department of Municipal and Community Affairs and Department of Municipal and Community Affairs.Competition and Buying Patterns at which, pricing of projects and billing rates are surprisingly variable. In consulting at this level, it is easier to be priced too low than too high. Clients and potential clients expect to pay substantial fees for the best qual ity professional advice. The nature of the billing, however, is sensitive. Clients are much more likely to be offended when a job starts at $20K and ends up at $30K because of overruns, than if the same job started at $30K or even $35K.Main Competitors are Ferguson Simek Clark (FSC Group), A.D. Williams Engineering Ltd. (ADWEL), and Girvan and Associates.Conclusion:The company done a very good performance as the company executive summary showed a very remarkable achievement in the analysis.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Pen pal letter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Pen pal letter - Essay Example I would actually tease him every evening to dance a little before he would hug me goodnight. The interest in dancing grew in me though with a lot of resistance from my mother who believed that my concentration in dancing at an early age would adversely affect my education. In fact, I once received a thorough beating from my mother when she learnt that I had sneaked from school and went for kids dancing festival without her knowledge. However, the interest grew in me in last year I decided to talk with my mother of my great interest in dancing and she consented to my interest in joining a music class for part time studies; I therefore enquired from the school and through their guidance; I successfully enrolled for this class last month. I have come to like dancing more, especially after watching the clip you sent me as well as other dancing clips provided for by the school. As it has been my interest, I am enjoying the training on different free styling dancing techniques (Chris and C antrell, 1-2). The class has been instrumental in helping me understand the different other types of street dances which I only used to see in music videos. The moves in the different dancing styles are quite fascinating and some are proving quite challenging to learn fast. I admire some of my friends in class who show high levels of flexibility and are easily copying into dance moves as shown from dance clips. My greatest challenge has been because of the little practice that I have been doing prior to enrolment for this class due to the discouragement from my mother. I actually had very little exposure to dancing despite my keen interest into the same because whenever found dancing by my mother at home, that would attract a punishment. This led to little exposure and I always had the dream of becoming a professional dancer. Nevertheless, I must tell you that the start has been fantastic and I am very eager to learn more in dancing. I have also had great support from my instructor despite my slow pace in learning that I have an outstanding capacity to perfect in dancing. A recent performance in a church forum actually made my mother very happy and she highly apologized for discouraging me from dancing earlier. I am therefore very existed about it and I must thank you for inspiring me into enrolling for this class. The class is in a very conducive environment and the instructors are highly trained in dancing. The class involves two aspects, which are the lecture class as well as the dancing studio class. The lecture class experience is fascinating especially in learning the evolution of various dancing styles. I have found it increasingly interesting to analyze the different dances that have been in the world and more so the backstreet dances. One would likely conclude that then modern day dances are the ultimate thing but I have discovered that more are to be discovered. The lectures have especially been interesting because of the humorous lecturers we have w ho would go miles in explaining and illustrating the dancing stiles being studied. With illustration clips, dancing becomes very real in class and one can never wait for the studio practices. We also hold dance reviews, discussions as well as dance demonstrations with the aid of our lectures in classroom set-ups. The studio practices are on the other hand very interesting as we practice what is learnt in lecture set-ups and this is how I learn

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Risk Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Risk Management - Essay Example Introduction The risks that a business encounters in the course of its duties affect their performances in several ways. Investors are likely to shy away from businesses that have high risks unless the returns expected are very high when compared to the risks (Ayling, 2010). The relationship between the risks a business faces and the returns expected helps in determining the prices for their commodities. The risk in this case is the risk the business faces as a result of floods damaging their equipment and premises. The loss of property resulted in the company encountering losses and disruptions in the execution of their daily activities. Step one: Risk identification Risk identification is the process of identifying threats to the operations of a business. It involves evaluating the conditions affecting the business and the damage it experiences. Risks can be considered as either stand alone or in the context of a portfolio (Ayling, 2010). Risks are termed as stand alone when the fl ows of cash from an asset are analyzed on their own. The risks can also be considered in the context of a portfolio. This implies that the impacts of the flows of cash from all the organization’s assets are considered (Crouchy, Galai and Mark, 2000). The risks facing the organization will be considered in the context of a portfolio to determine the effects of losing cash from all the assets destroyed. This will assist in revealing any risks and relationships that get lost as a result of the disaster. The identification of risks involves the use of both the top-down and bottom-up approaches (Ayling, 2010). The management will collaborate with the heads of various departments in the identification, assessment and prioritization of the risk involved. The threats identified should be the ones that affect the organization’s attainment of their strategic goals. The identification process will additionally assists the management in deciding which risks will be dealt with. The bottom-up approach involves the whole organizations’ staff involvement in the management of the risks (Ayling, 2010). On the other hand, using the top-down approach involves using the senior managers to develop strategies to counter these effects. The organization will opt for the bottom-up approach as they will get diverse opinions on how they can counter the risks specified. In order to counter the effects of the floods, the organization will come up with several measures. This will include issues such as establishing warning systems, the construction of dams and building defenses along the rivers and coastlines. The implementation of these strategies will become an expense for the company (Crouchy, Galai and Mark, 2000). The hotel will however benefit from these moves since they will be able to salvage their property in the event that similar events occur. The implementation of these measures will assist the hotel in meeting their objectives without disruptions due to flo ods. There are currently no measures that have been put in place to counter the effects of similar disasters. Step two: Risk Measurement The measurement of risks involves estimating the impacts of the risks to an organization. It also involves the process of ascertaining the consequences of the risk (Ayling, 2010). The measure to be used in calculating the effects of these risks will be the

Emerging Tourism Markets and destinations ( chosen destination New Coursework

Emerging Tourism Markets and destinations ( chosen destination New Zeeland) - Coursework Example xi). In order to take advantage of this opportunity, the Prime Minister at the time, Helen Clark, made a documentary called New Zealand: the Royal Tour (2002).Suddenly in the spotlight, the nation had the opportunity to increase their tourism, increasing the economic benefits and placing the nation on lists of desired destinations for tourists around the world (IMDB 2013). Prime Minister Clark was able to show her own capacities in being a part of the natural world, providing for eco-tourism enthusiasts to have a unique glimpse of the beautiful and almost untouched landscapes. 2. Overview The geographical landscape of New Zealand is based on two main islands and the surrounding smaller islands in the region (The Official Website of the British Monarchy 2009). The region is a constitutional monarchy which is headed by Queen Elizabeth II, but managed by a Prime Minister who is advised as needed by the appointed Governor General who represents the Queen, but asserts authority rarely, if ever. The Constitution is the core of the governance of the Island state with the nation sitting at 5th for its use of democracy and having one of the most stable governments in the world (The Fund for Peace 2013). The climate in New Zealand can only be described in relationship to the region for which the discussion is being made. Temperatures can range from 10 degrees Celsius in the south to 16 degrees Celsius in the north. The climate is mild for the most part, but remote regions can have either very warm or very cold temperatures, extremes that are dependent upon the location (The New Zealand Encyclopaedia, 2013). The sun shines in the Auckland and Wellington regions on average 2000 hours per year. Cooler climates are found in the south with only having about 1400-1600 hours per year, with the northern parts of the region having the sunniest number of days at 2400-2500 per year (Corrigan 2012, p. 41). The OECD (2009, p. 71) developed a report on the status of New Zealand, inclu ding information on the infrastructure. According to the report, the development of roads, of stable electricity, and of communications has increased rapidly in the last decade. The appointment of a minister to focus on infrastructure has indicated recognition of the need for attention to the facilities within the nation. In addition, a problem was recognized when the 2008 worldwide economic downturn began as a lack of insurance on banking deposits caused financial difficulties as the worldwide banking structures began to fail (OECD 2009, p. 73). English is the primary language in New Zealand, but prior to colonization the Maori language was the primary language. In 1987 the Maori language was recognized as an official language (Bell, Harlow, and Starks 2006, p. 13). The Maori were the first immigrants to the land of New Zealand, travelling in canoes from Tahiti about 1500 years ago. The Maori are now only about 15% of the population with about 500,000 in the population. There are a great many tribes of the Maori, but traditional Maori life is not widely practiced and most have integrated into the post-colonial modern world (Theunissen 2003, p. 5). Like most regions of the world that were oppressed under colonialism, the Maori were discouraged from speaking their own language and to integrate in servitude positions under the British domination. Children in schools under British colonialism were punished severely for speaking

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

The Various Legal Aspects Associated with the Warwickshire College Essay

The Various Legal Aspects Associated with the Warwickshire College - Essay Example The college as a whole has been formed as a result of the merger of few other colleges and was established in the year1996. In the backdrop of this, the essay intends to produce an informal report considering the legal aspects of Warwickshire College. Discussion This section generally describes the type of legal status that gets associated with a firm or even an educational organization depended on its types. Since property ownership can be of multiple types and thus the associated legal aspects also vary accordingly. Examples of ownership model include government ownership, cooperative ownership, private ownership, public ownership, collective ownership and other types of ownership. Warwickshire College is an autonomous Corporation with exempt charity status incorporated under the Further and Higher Education Act 1992 (Warwickshire College, n.d.). Additively, the college corporation appears to be made up of the membership of the local community business, stakeholder partners, local authorities and the staff-student members. This organization also abides by the general ‘employment’, ‘diversity’, ‘equality’, ‘health’ and ‘safety’ laws as established by the UK government. Depending on these health and safety principles, the college provides a clean and safe environment for the students and the employees to work. The pricing policy in context to this college generally refers to its fee structure. Concerning fee structure, the college demands a full payment of the course fee before it issues the Visa letter to its students. In certain cases where college fails to issue the Visa letter to students, it provides a complete refund of the submitted course fee to the student after deduction of certain percentage as administrative charges. This refunding process needs to be carried out within three months from the date of refusal of the visa. The variation within the yearly course fee completely depends on t he decision of the college.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Sacred Rite - Roman Catholic Christian Sacramental Worship Research Paper

Sacred Rite - Roman Catholic Christian Sacramental Worship - Research Paper Example This paper will discuss the sacred rites around the Catholic Christian worship. Catholic catechism helps it followers understand the deep mysteries of the Church. It purports to be the only church left by Jesus Christ, and they state this in the creed the decreed the church as one, holy, Catholic and apostolic. To Catholics, a sacrament is a sacred procedure through which God uses to express his grace to humankind. In addition, sacraments depict Gods presence. Before Jesus Christ left earth, Catholics believe he celebrated seven sacraments, which they hold dear in their faith. These include baptism, confirmation Eucharist, penance, anointing of the sick, matrimony, and religious orders. Eucharist is a vital sacrament that holds most of the Catholic faith. They believe that it completes a new believer’s initiation to the church. It is the only sacrament that is celebrated daily as Catholic faithful congregate for their prayers that they call â€Å"mass.† Eucharistic sacrifice includes prayers, reading parts of the bible, singing of hymns, and priests present. The wheat and wine in some peculiar glasses are lifted to God, and the priest chants some words to invite God to do the transformation. After these prayers, Christians partake of the bread as the body of Jesus and wine as the blood of Jesus. In this, they celebrate his death and resurrection on the cross, which they believe to have washed their original sin caused by Adam and Eve. Not all Catholic Christians participate in the Eucharist in a celebration. Eucharist is sacred and therefore, Christians living in sin will not partake of it. Such Christians include married couples who did not have their union blessed in church and people who have not gone for atonement for some time and thus have accumulated sins. In the Catholic faith, ordination to the priesthood is a sacrament on its own. Every Christian has the right to choose to marry or spend a celibate life.  

Monday, September 23, 2019

Ruminating on Ramadan Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ruminating on Ramadan - Article Example Fasting does not only mean abstaining from food – but more so on smoking and sexual relations. It is an opportunity to make amends and be sorry for one’s mistakes – to make peace and to indulge in catharsis or purging and cleansing of one’s mind, body and spirit. Prayers are magnified in intensity and utmost devotion. During the Ramadan, Muslims are encouraged to go to the Masjid (Mosque) to offer prayers and sacrifice. According to Jabbar, a devote Muslim who now works in a private office in Jakarta, â€Å"during Ramadan, we focus more on prayers and fasting more than our daily activities. It is a month of meditation for what we have said and done to our neighbors and to ask forgiveness for our wrongdoing.† Shabir, a student at a university in Jakarta, expectantly rejoice in anticipating the end of Ramadan, the Eid al Fitr. She said that â€Å"after a month of daily fasting, sacrifice and prayers, families prepare for the end of Ramadan by giving gifts, eating specially prepared foods, and reuniting with families and friends. It is much like Christmas being celebrated by Catholics, I suppose. I couldn’t wait to open my gifts and to share the blessing with others.† Eid al Fitr, a three-day celebration means ‘festival of the fast-breaking’. It marks the beginning of Shawwal, the month following Ramadan. Muslims take the opportunity to thank Allah for the blessings and strength accorded them to surpass the sacrifices during Ramadan. Imad Rahim wrote an article on the Ramadan - Eid Ul Fitr Celebrations Across the World which could be accessed online through Suite 101 as he averred that â€Å"it is the biggest holiday in Indonesia and Malaysia. Shopping malls and bazaars are filled with people days ahead of Idul Fitri, causing a distinctive festive atmosphere throughout the country and traffic mayhem. The night before Idul Fitri is filled with the sounds of many muezzins singing the takbir held in the mosques or  or mushollahs.  

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Gender Representation Essay Example for Free

Gender Representation Essay How stereotypical are the representations of Gender in my chosen texts? My chosen texts are The Inbetweeners , X Factor and BBC News. All three texts represent gender in different ways yet I wouldnt say that any of them truly represent both genders in stereotypical ways. In The Inbetweeners the main characters are portrayed in a very stereotypical way at first glance, they are boystrous and objectify women in the crude way in which they speak about them. Yet when you look deeper into their characters you realise that they are not typical at all. The females in the show are typical in a sense that they are pretty, well dressed and are purely there for the male gaze. It is this male gaze that ultimately makes them more powerful than the males in the series as they have the power to either sleep with, or not sleep with the males which takes all control away from the men which is not a typical trait. When you think of a typical male in tv they are strong, handsome and in control, this is not always evident in The Inbetweeners which supports the masculinity in crisis theory which states that males are no longer the dominant sex in modern society. Women may be objectified still but they use their sex appeal to there advantage and get their own way leaving the males powerless. You do how ever have the very typical character of Jays dad which is a hyperbolic example of a male as he passes gas, swears and acts in a completely innaproriate way for the comedic value. The X Factor has a very contrasting representation of gender. In one way the male characters are very stereotypical as they have the power to say yes or no to the acts as judges. Males are stereotypically known for being in a position of power so this is a typical representation. Yet you have Dermot Oleary who is very masculine in his appearance yet is very caring and sympathetic for the contestants. This is not typical as males arent usually shown to have a caring side or emotions as that is left for the women. This again supports the theory of masculinity in crisis. The Female Judges do not have a very typical representation. They are in a position of authority and power and to an extent in the new series do have more power than the male judges as they are more forceful and get their point across better. This is not typically the way women are represented fitting into the theory of Masculinity in crisis. The BBC news is very much like the X Factor. When the males are the anchors they are in a position of power and knowledge which is a typical representation. They appear to the nation as a pillar of knowledge and the public give them a vast amount of respect which is typical of the representation of men. When the women are anchors they too are looked upon as a pillar of knowledge and are given the same respect which does not fit into the typical representation of a female.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Wal Marts Sustainability Strategy Management Essay

Wal Marts Sustainability Strategy Management Essay Wal-Mart attained its present stature as a leader of discount retailer solely due to the innovative vision of its founder Sam Walton. Wal-Mart still today follows the traditional goals and philosophies left behind by Sam, coupled with the practice of keeping one step ahead of ever changing technologies and the nature of the business environment in which it operates. In spite of the controversies over different issues confronting it and still being faced, the future is bright, if and only if it strikes a comfortable balance seen increasing in its profit and recognizing its social and ethical responsibilities. Evaluation of Design process: The success of Wal-Mart lies mainly due its sound managerial decisions and the innovative implementation of sustainability strategies to dramatically reduce the companys impact on the global environment and in an effort to become the most competitive and innovative company in the world. The company believed in the three cardinal principles, that is To be supplied 100 percent by renewable energy; to create zero waste; and to sell products that sustaining our resources and the environment. The gist of the decision implementation by Wal-Mart lies in its ability to build a solid working relationship with both suppliers and employees, taking note of the most intricate details in store layout and necessary merchandising techniques, capitalizing in every cost saving technique, and creating a high performance spirit. Below are some of the important strategies implemented by Wal-Mart which were responsible for its success. One of it first initiative was to launch a campaign to encourage its s uppliers to provide environment friendly and safe products in recyclable or biodegradable packaging at no additional cost. Wal-Mart intended to influence its suppliers to spend more on RD so as to find the safer modes of processing and packing and that too without passing the cost on to them. This wasnt a strategy indented to make it rich, but it was a started as a campaign for environmental benefit and which earned them a lot of good will among environmentalist. Wal-Mart also started creating green shelf tags to mark the products the vendors created that were environmentally friendly. This was one of it first step towards sustainability. But slowly company lost track of its primary strategic priorities. Wal-Mart soon realized this and started to revamp its sustainable strategy in an effort to make it to be long lasting and deeply embed it in its operations as envisaged by Scott. Scott lead the sustainability strategy to keep the environmental improvements tightly coupled with the business value and profitability for the strategy to succeed as well as challenged themselves to find new ways to drive measureable results. Several proposals were considered and many of which had bigger ideas on how Wal-Mart could profitably reduce environmental impacts. In the initial proposals put forward Wal-Mart wanted to differentiate itself from its competition, maintain a license to grow, and remain consistent to its commitment and serving customer with everyday low prices by perusing an offensive strategy. The management realized that sustainability could represents the biggest opportunity for the 21st century and proposed that Wal-Mart and its complex supply chain could become even more efficient by making its operations even more environment friendly. They believed if sustainability was to be taken seriously, it meant not just the environment and but also includes health care, wages, ethical sourcing and globalization and everything as a whole. With this in mind Wal-Mart started its campaign initially focusing on the environment. Large part of it efforts were spent working with the various Government and Environmental agencies to identify which of its products and processes created greatest environmental impacts. After its large scale investigation Wal-Mart narrowed down the problem to 3 primary areas: Energy, Waste and Products, and decided that it would focus its environmental goals for reducing the Wal-Marts impact on the environment. Increasing energy efficiency, transitioning to renewable energy, and reducing waste in retail operations were decided to be the direct goals à ¢Ã… ½Ã‚ ¯ goals that could be achieved by making changes that were within Wal-Marts more immediate control. It understood that providing more sustainable products was an indirect goal which would also require the involvement of Wal-Mart suppliers and their help to accomplish . Wal-Mart also learned that the best way to generate good will is to serve society as it did for the hurricane Karina victims. It actively participated in helping provide relief to the people of New Orleans and its surrounding areas as a result earned the trust of every one. Next the company came up with 14 sustainable value networks with a leader identified who would be driving the sustainability in different parts of the business. As the sustainability effort picked up momentum it was quick to realize that the sustainability doesnt involve extra work but is only a new way of approaching ones own work. Hence it started assigning new responsibility for people in their existing position rather than creating new jobs and made it an integral part of the work every one performed. Other notable change of the implementation was to look outside, which was a major shift from the usual way Wal-Mart used to conduct its operations focused internally. The strategy represented a major cultural change for the organization, seeking ideas from all consultants, NGOs suppliers, eco-friendly competitors, academicians and even its critics. It is also engaged in a dialogue with the government regarding climate change and a curb on green house gas emissions. The collaborativ e approach was doing wonders and it decided to make it a part of the ongoing sustainability model. All across the 14 value networks, hundreds of external entities where asked to join and participate on an ongoing basis and the primary criterion was to include and engage folks who are genuinely committed to desired future outcomes. Wal-Mart started engaging in dialog with government policy makers regarding climate change. It opposed a carbon tax as it will be passed on to customers and therefore advocated a cap and trade system and endorsed proposals for market based programs for reducing green gas emissions. The networks were encourage to develop a sensing organization that is aware of the external business environment, and able to incorporate this perspective into business decisions that create long term value. The networks were give the freedom to define their own sustainability objectives and plot their own course. The strategy can briefly be summed up as ENGAGE , EXPLORE and EXP AND. Engagement mean looking beyond Wal-Marts traditional stakeholders to identify and work with a broader community of participants that could provide information, subject matter expertise, and other resources to help Wal-Mart further define and achieve its environmental goals. Exploration included analyzing the life cycle of particular products. Exploration included analyzing the life cycle of particular products or services and investigating the related environmental issues. Determine where and how the company could change its business model to address the needs and concerns of this broader community, as well as its traditional stakeholders. Global logistics were able to leverage existing programs and quickly started to making progress by improving the fuel efficiency by 25 percent. As China is a geography and the fact that it touched all the networks Wal-Mart was in a fix as what is to be done. Wal-Marts goal was to build strong relationships and develop overall business partners for capable to attain excellent standards in ethical and environmental areas in the supply of quality and safe products and components and then spread this to other suppliers with whom business is to be developed. IN addition Wal-Mart intends to provide suppliers with Valuable knowledge and process assistance through relationships with NGOs in its networks. Wal-Mart set up compliance organization that monitored supplier performance in China and other countries around the world. Wal-Mart complains audit primarily focused on health and safety issues and it measured suppliers against its four identified metrics- Water treatment, Waste management, Banned chemicals and air emissions. Improvement in seafood network around the world was made possible through possible though implementation of MSC- accredited certifying agencies. MSE certification was entrusted to third parties which audited and certified fisheries and processes to ensure that products were managed sustainably from boat to plate. MSE certification firstly was to address sustainability of wild caught fish and later to ACC certification for farm raced fish. Wal-Mart identified 5 primary initiative for setting up of group to rally around MSC certification : Certification, Cluster Farming, Marine Reserves, Public Awareness, External collaboration. Wal-Mart goal was to increase the number of fisheries and processing plants in the MSC certification program. Supplies would refer the fisheries to MSC and have them use MSC eco labels on their products, in order to start buying as much certified fishes as possible. The direct cost of MSC certification was paid for by boat operators and processing plants. Immed iate benefits were seen through the certification initiative because of greater transparency in the sea food supply chain. As MS required a chain of custody to guarantee that the fish was virtually indistinguishable from the rest. Benefits through sustainability were seen in improved transportation efficiencies, elimination of stock-outs and raw material shortages, reduction in supplier costs though standardized packaging, etc. Wal-Mart delegated the implementation of MSC to the suppliers and the suppliers motivated to building the relationship were compelled to adopt the strategies there by gaining trust of Wal-Mart. This building relationships allowed Wal-Mart to talk on behalf of suppliers, defend their points and explain to other associates the importance of this relationships. In Electronic network Wal-Mart identified six key areas of focus: Material innovation, E-Waste, Legislation, Green Engineering, Metrics, Training and Education. Their strategy was to provide their customers with sustainable product choices utilizing a supply chain that improves the quality of life of all stakeholders. Wal-Mart had to make guaranteed orders to the suppliers sell only RoHS-compliant products to customers. By five years they made sure that every computer that they bought in US was RoHS compliant. Wal-Mart also introduced many initiative at reducing e-waste by starting may programs like recycling take-back programs. Wal-Mart also focused on advocating for national standards for both hazardous substances and e-waste. Organic cotton innovation project received top priority of the textiles network. They adopted clear standards (USDA guidelines) for organic cotton farming and manufacturing processes. Got permit to use a certain hazardous chemicals were safer substitutes were not yet commercially available. The strategy in cotton textiles is to develop and environmentally garment made of renewable material combine with he process is efficient with minimum wage and use of inputs with a minimum toxicity. When three chemicals were identified. with a negative ratings it encourage suppliers to use most sustainable substitutes. Wal-Mart was cautious in not sharing widely these metrics for a fear of boomerang on other products in itself, but only told customers that it cared for their health. The game changer project is to reduce the impact of environment and textile manufacture, which of recent origin. It also played it safe by not putting its green tags, not forced the manufacturer to take responsibility for promoting environment and health benefits for their products and left if for them to decide To conclude Wal-Mart saw and overwhelmingly large array of opportunities that remain untapped and decided to continue to identify and pursue the opportunities with max environmental benefits and business value. Improvements in Design and Design Process: Following are some of the strategies that they could implement to improve their business All the Wal-Mart stores can be made using Green constuction all over the world. Green buildings often include measures to reduce energy consumption, Water efficieny, Waste reduction etc. Solar panels could be installed at each the store locations, their by reducing the energy wastage. Energy for extravagant use can be reduced. The neon lights use for advertisement and display of products during late night hours can be given up, energy saved is energy produced. Expand activities in international markets beyond China in the Asian Sub continent. Instead of sticking to price alone importance may be given to quality with a marginal increase in price by Wal-Mart and let the neighborhood stores deal with products of low price to meet corporate social responsibility and to minimize resistance from neighborhood associations . To cut down costs the finished items which are of lesser weight compare to their original raw state like fish and textile may be processed at the place of their availability (even in foreign places) itself and move only the finished items to the distribution centers, and also taking advantage of differential labor cost in to consideration and their logistic advantages. Intense and mandatory training for all employees must be organized. All employees must have profound knowledge about the goals and strategy of the organization. we dont know the formulation, Manufacturers would decide to do this based on their own level of confidence in the sustainability-related attributes of their products Should never happen. Wal-Mart must have a good understanding about the product they sell. Wal-Mart identified three chemicals which has bad impact on health such as chemicals which can cause Cancer and birth defects. Wal-Mart urged suppliers and vendors to use substitutes for these harmful chemicals. Although these three chemicals were substituted, Wal-Mart was unsure about the formulation and aftereffects of these chemicals which made them reluctant to promote or putting their green tags. As the result, the manufactures were forced to complete the necessary scientific research on these substitutes and use safe chemicals. Wal-Marts employees have a basic understanding about the green initiatives. The internal communication programs and external media coverage helps the associates to know more about Wal-Mart Strategy. The most beneficial and valuable input Wal-Mart receive to promote its green products is through its associates as associates are often Wal-Mart customers. These inputs helps Wal-Mart to save time as their employees need a little time to learn about customers preferences. The success of wal mart lies in its sound managerial decisions and the innovative implementation of these decisions. The company believed in the three cardinal principles of :- 1) Customer value and service 2) Partnership with its employees who are regarded as associates, and 3) Community service The gist of the decision implementation by wal mart lies in its ability to build a solid working relationship with both suppliers and employees, taking note of the most intricate details in store layout and necessary merchandising techniques, capitalizing in every cost saving technique, and creating a high performance spirit. All steps are taken to provide customers what they want at the apt time and that too at competitive prices and to build and maintain a reputation for absolute trustworthiness, The wal mart stores operate on every day low prices by passing on savings to their customers, the stores make constant efforts to improve key business process, managing them centrally and investing in them heavily for long term pay back. The stores were quick in testing , adapting and applying a range of cutting- edge merchandising approaches and was able to learn quickly from the success and failures of competitors. The company invested heavily in its unique cross -docking inventory system to achieve economies of scale, making it possible to supply goods just in time and at low prices. Cross- docking at the store level. The company provides individual managers more control at the store level. The company owns its own transportation system to move goods in time from warehouse to shelves much faster than their competitors. It has its own largest and most sophisticated computer system. Its Manually Parallel Processor computer system helps in tracking stock movement and collect timely information related to sales and inventory position disseminated through satellite communication system Wal mart has leveraged its volume buying power with its suppliers. It negotiates the best prices from its vendors and expects commitment of quality goods. The purchasing agents are much focused people. Even though it is a tough negotiator for rock bottom prices, the company worked closely with its suppliers to develop mutual respect and forge long term partnerships for mutual benefit. It also has an automated recorder system linking computers between P G and its stores and distribution centers. The interaction between P G and Wal Mart helps greater co-ordination; P G can reduce costs and pass on savings to wal Mart. Wal Mart buys American products whenever and wherever possible, if these products provide the sane quality and affordability as their foreign counterparts. Environment concerns the wal mart significantly .A prototype store was opened in Lawrence, Kansas, which was designed to be environment friendly, provide environment education and recycling centers. Wal Mart also adopts the low cost theme for its facilities. Temperature is controlled centrally to conserve energy (How successful is wal mart get details of increase in sales, debt position, operating costs, cost of sales and then comment) Problems Wal mart replaced the then leaders -Sears and Kmans in 1991 in retailing. Its strong competitive position and rapid growth performance cant be guaranteed for long. The top position enjoyed by it can be wiped out by one small bad move wiping out all good things in stroke, therefore every single move in its business operations will have to be well thought out and properly executed Wal marts success is mainly due to the single Business Strategy and its Corporate Social Responsibility. It would like to continue its strategy and push hard to increase its market share if not at least maintain it. This strategy has the risk of putting all eggs in one basket. Secondly, if the present trend continues Wal Mart will reach its zenith in the near future. Once this is reached, it will slow down and Company requires diversifying for future growth. Retail stores can compete on several grounds -service, price, exclusively, quality and fashion on which Wal Mart has the competitive edge. However, other merchants object to the entry of Wal Mart as they can not face the competition due to their small scale and many neighborhood stores were driven out. Mounting opposition to big retailers is now a serious problem with neighborhood associations promising to fight the retailers tooth and claws. As a result the road ahead of Wal Mart may not be smooth as expected in the future. Wal Mart increased the number of retail stores and also Super centre divisions to take up grocery retailing also. Wal Mart moved to overseas markets through joint ventures with an international division formed in 1944 to manage international growth located in South America, Europe and Asia. In 2005 October. Lee Scot, wat Marts President announced that Wat Mart was launching a sweeping business sustainability strategy to drastically reduce its impact on the global environment and thus become a competitive and innovative company in the world. He urged the associates and suppliers to be a good steward of the environment under the same time be profitable. He declared that Wal Mart is committed to the three aspiration goals of being supplied with 100% renewable energy, reduce waste to zero level and to sell product that sustain natural resources and the environment. Against it his background, Andrew Ruben, Vice President of corporate and business sustainability and director Tyler and Elm led the sustainability strategy and recognized the fact that the environment can be protected coupled with business value and profitability. With this end in view, Wal Mart focused on the companied three focal areas-sea food, electronics and textiles- and their effect in the companies operations, supplier relationships and results; and explain how the companies measuring and communicating its ideas about sustainability to its associates, customers and the general public.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Employee Development Programs :: Career Planning, Training and Development

Employee development programs are not a new idea in the United States. General Motors established one of the first corporate universities in 1927 with the General Motors Institute (Gerbman, 2000). The concept was slow to catch on, but in the 1950s a variety of organizations followed the same path. During the 1950s General Electric established Crotonville Management Development Institute and Walt Disney began Disney University (Gerbman, 2000). McDonald’s followed this trend with the establishment of Hamburger University to train its managers in the early 1960s (Garger, 1999). Despite these progressive organizations, employee development and career planning still experienced some growing pains. In the 1970s, career planning and development efforts were focused on young employees that seemed to have high potential. It was a way for companies to plan for the future and nurture young workers for senior management positions (Moses, 1999). This career path model fit well with the traditional commitment employees would offer to companies. Chris Argyris referred to this commitment as a â€Å"psychological contract† in which employers were almost guaranteed long term loyalty and commitment to the organization in return for giving employees job security, opportunities for promotion, and training (Feldman, 2000). The ability to get on this fast track to the top of a company diminished in the 1980s when companies were moving to a flattened hierarchy with less room for promotions. People quickly realized that they were reaching plateaus in their careers and the opportunities for advancement did not exist (Moses, 1999). The concept 5 of career planning became less realistic for both individuals and organizations because neither could count on long term commitment (Feldman, 2000). The stock market crash of 1987 was a major turning point in employee development. Daniel Feldman keenly states that, â€Å"where once large corporations were seen as bastions of job security, they are now seen as minefields of job insecurity† (2000). Not only were corporations flattening, they were also downsizing and restructuring to compensate for loss of revenue. These drastic changes in the job market also led to changes in employee development programs. Barbara Moses states that, â€Å"today, job security is dead and loyalty to the organization in the tradition sense has died along with it† (1999). Under this assumption, companies have to change the way they view employee development. Where once training and development were viewed as mechanisms for employees to move up the corporate ladder, promotion is no longer an incentive for employees because it is not a definite option.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Dangers of Buying Bottled Water Essay -- Food

Water Consider bottled water, have you ever wondered why you bring yourself to spend two to five dollars on a simple bottle of water? Water is one our earth’s very resources, should it be legal to have to purchase water at all? Wouldn’t you consider water a human right? According to TIME, Nestle’ makes $2.2 billion a year off of bottled water. This company and many like it are taking groundwater from local communities at little to no cost, and selling it at inflated prices as â€Å"purified† water. In the state of Michigan, citizens are protesting the outflow of water. They are claiming that groundwater levels are dangerously dropping and becoming unhealthy. When groundwater begins to drop to an unhealthy level that community must begin rationing out water to some how maintain the levels. This leaves children thirsty and mothers frantically trying to find ways to supply such a necessity to their families. It is not fair that these companies, like Nestle’, are permitted to withdraw 210 million gallons of water a year to sell at a profit that is yet to be figured. In this process, sta...

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Welfare System and Poverty in the UK Essay -- Social Issues, Poverty,

This essay will consider whether the welfare state has eliminated poverty. It will examine what poverty is and how the definition varies from societies. The essay will look at the aims of the welfare state from conception and how it has changed to present times. The welfare state being analysed is the welfare state in the United Kingdom. It will discuss the nature of the social democratic welfare state and liberal criticisms of the problems this type of state brings. The recent changes to the welfare state will be reviewed and what the consequences of the changes may be. It will then look at recent statistics to determine whether the welfare state has eradicated poverty. Poverty is a difficult condition to define because it is often used to mean different things by different people. The United Nations definition states that ‘... poverty is a denial of choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic capacity to participate in society†¦.it often implies living on marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation’ (UN statement, 1998). Poverty is generally split into two types; absolute and relative. Absolute poverty can be defined in different ways but, regardless of the definition, it is generally agreed that is in an intolerable situation that requires action to reverse (Schwartzman, 1997). Absolute poverty can be described as ‘a condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation, facilities, health, shelter, education and information’ (World Summit on Social Development, 1995). The UN measures absolute poverty by a lack of two or more deprivations of human basic need. The needs are; food, safe drinking w... ... will still leave more than 12 million in poverty though the indirect consequences of reform may prove to offer further help to those living below the poverty line. In many ways the welfare state has succeeded in bringing about a fairer society at the most basic level. All citizens are entitled to free education, health care, and benefits when needed, which are the most fundamental needs. Liberals might argue that the welfare state has, in fact, worked too well by creating a society in which one can choose whether or not to work and still be given a decent standard of living while contributing nothing to the overall standard of society. Beyond this, it can be argued, the welfare state has failed. The UK is the fifth richest country in the world ( yet still struggles with raising a large percentage of its citizens out of poverty.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

A Mission or Personal Vision Statement (VV1) Essay

We begin this seminar with the development of a personal mission or vision statement. We use this statement in this seminar to emphasize that your time at the UW begins with dreams and visions you hold for the life that is still ahead of you. We ask you to write a mission statement that is reflective of who you are and what your sense of calling, purpose, vocation, or meaning of life. Mission statements are helpful for many reasons, but primarily they are used as a tool to encourage you to consciously reflect on who you are and what you are doing at the UW. As you progress through your educational experience here, you will find that you will take many side roads, you will wander off the path, hurry ahead of yourself, and even become unsure and hidden in the brambles. We have found that a personal mission statement is helpful when the way becomes cloudy; to return to a written statement of your essence and purpose in life can often help you forge your chosen path. Definitions[1]: †¢ â€Å"Values: ‘Concepts, principles, or standards that drive one’s decisions and actions. ’ Examples of values are honesty, persistence, dependability, self-sufficiency, and faith. † †¢ A vision statement: ‘A statement of three or four sentences describing a desired future – not a predicted future. ’ Here is an example of a vision statement (stated as if the vision has already been achieved, so that it is positive and powerful): ‘I am a person who is peaceful and an example to others of that peace, which comes from faith in God. I am considered to be an inspirational teacher of great integrity. I lead a simple life style that includes plenty of time for myself, my family, and my friends as well as service to others. ’ †¢ A mission statement: ‘A succinct, easy-to-remember statement that provides direction for one’s life. ’ Here is an example of a very short mission statement developed from the sample vision statement quoted above: ‘I am committed to living in accordance with my faith in God, maintaining a happy marriage, and being a loving and supportive parent. In my professional life, I seek to empower high school students by providing quality teaching while adhering to my religious principles. I want to live a simple life style. ’ Note that a mission statement may be lengthier if desired, but brevity is important. During this process it is critical to ensure consistency between values, the vision statement, and the mission statement. If these three components are not consistent, it is not possible to devise a workable plan. † To get you thinking about the development of your mission statement, please spend some time thinking about the following questions: Why are you here today? What are the life values that you hold most near to your heart? What is it you are most passionate about? What hopes do you have for your UW experience? What hopes do you have for your life beyond the UW? The answers you develop through these activities and exercises will be the basis of your personal mission and vision statement. Most are 1 page or less in length. We also see this mission statement as highly fluid. As you continue your education, we hope that some of your initial ideas and longings remain the same and we also hope that you will be changed. To this end, the personal mission statement is a malleable document that begins today, will be submitted formally at the end of the seminar, and will continue to represent you and your becoming while at the UW. The following worksheets are a guide to help you answer some of those significant questions in an organized format. Creating or Revising Your Personal Vision[2] by Dr. Linda Phillips-Jones It’s good to create or revise the â€Å"personal vision† you have for your life. A compelling vision can help you succeed, be more satisfied with your life, and get the most out of your all relationships and experiences. Following is a tool for doing that. Importance of Having a Personal Vision Numerous experts on leadership and personal development emphasize how vital it is for you to craft your own personal vision for your life. Warren Bennis, Stephen Covey, Peter Senge, and others point out that a powerful vision can help you succeed far beyond where you’d be without one. That vision can propel you and inspire those around you to reach their own dreams. I’ve learned in my own life and in working as a psychologist that if you don’t identify your vision, others will plan and direct your life for you. I’ve worked with too many individuals who late in their lives said, â€Å"If only. . . .† You don’t have to be one of them. Senge defines vision as what you want to create of yourself and the world around you. What does your vision include? Making a vital change in an area such as health, technology, or the environment? Raising happy, well-adjusted children? Writing a book? Owning your own business? Living on a beach? Being very fit and healthy? Visiting every continent? Helping others with their spiritual development? What are you good at? What do you love to do? What aren’t you good at now, but you’d like to be? All of these important questions are part of identifying your personal vision. |Things I Really Enjoy Doing |What Brings Me Happiness/Joy |The Two Best Moments of My Past |Three Things I’d Do If I Won | | | |Week |the Lottery | | | | | | | | | | | | | |. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Issues or Causes I Care Deeply |My Most Important Values |Things I Can Do at the |What I’d Like to Stop Doing or | |About |(Circle) |Good-to-Excellent Level |Do as Little as Possible | | |Having integrity | | | | | | | | | |Serving/pleasing a higher being| | | | |or calling | | | | | | | | | |Being fit and healthy | | | | | | | | | |Having a nice home | | | | |and belongings | | | | | | | | | |Leaving the world a better || | | |place | | | | | | | | | |Having fun | | | | | | | | | |Learning and improving myself | | | | | | | | | |Making others’ lives easier or | | | | |more pleasant | | | | | | | | | |Enjoying my family | | | | |Others? (Add) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ———————– [1] The 1995 Annual – Volume 1 Training, Pfeiffer & Company, Sand Diego, CA, p. 63. [2] Printed by permissions from: http://www. mentoringgroup. com/html/articles/mentee_1. html CCC/THE MENTORING GROUP, www. mentoringgroup. com, 13560 Mesa Drive, Grass Valley, CA 95949, USA, Phone: 530. 268. 1146 Fax: 530. 268. 3636 e-mail: info@mentoringgroup. com.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Case Study Managing a Systems Development Project

Elizabeth A. Humphrey Dr. Tim Brueggemann MBA54001OL November 11, 2012 Managing a Systems Development Project at consumer and Industrial Products, Inc. Situation Consumer and Industrial Products, Inc manufacture a variety of different products for individuals and businesses. Due to ineffective accounts payable system, Consumer and Industrial Products, Inc started a new project called Payables Audit Systems (PAS). The process of beginning this new project was taken very seriously. Roles were assigned and defined. Ted Anderson was the director of the project.Peter Shaw was assigned the responsibility of user project manager. The user project manager was â€Å"responsible for making sure that the system meets the user department’s business needs and that the system is completed on time. † (DeHayes, et al) Linda Watkins was given the duty of being the project director, whose main responsibility was to â€Å"manage the IS people on the project. † (DeHayes, et al) Harr y Carter was assigned the job of IS supervisor. The IS supervisor â€Å"was responsible for integrating all projects in the disbursements area and for allocating IS people to these projects. (DeHayes, et al) A steering group was also appointed and chaired by Ted Anderson. â€Å"The role of the steering group was to approve budgets, determine the business direction of the project, and make any necessary decisions. † (DeHayes, et al. )Communication was a very important part of this project. Therefore, everyone who was chosen to work on the PAS project had to have good communication skills. Consumer and Industrial Products, Inc had been using the CIMS (Computerized Invoice Matching System) system.This system would basically match invoices to purchase orders generated by the computer. Those invoices would then be paid if everything matched. If one minute detail didn’t match, the invoice would not be paid; delaying may accounts payable for an extended period of time. This system was not good for Consumer and Industrial Products, Inc and it was not good for the vendors. Due to the CIMS system being archaic and not meeting the needs of Consumer and Industrial Products, Inc, the project committee recommended developing a new system.The objects of the Detailed Study Report was to decrease the cost of processing vouchers, reduce the number of staff needed for processing vouchers, reduce the amount of time it takes to pay out the vouchers, and â€Å"support systematic integration with transportation/logistics, purchasing, and accounts payable to better facilitate changes due to shifts in business procedures. † (DeHayes, et al) When beginning the Drafts Requirements Study, Linda Watkins was concerned with so many systems dependent on each other being changed at the same time.When she voiced her concerns, she was basically told ‘the show will go on. ’ The last step was for the outline physical design group to take a look at the new system and get it set up. The original idea was for the PAS system to use the mainframe, but then an option of using a LAN was introduced. Using a LAN did cost quite a bit more than was budgeted. Just as the physical design report was being completed, Linda Watkins was in a car accident, leaving her with sever injuries and out of work for an extended amount of time. Ted Anderson was worried.Linda Watkins was the best manager he had and he wasn’t sure where to go from here. He asked his secretary to set up a meeting with IS Director Charles Bunke for first thing the next morning. He needed a plan. Target Consumer and Industrial Products, Inc is currently working on replacing their old CIMS system with the PAS system. Linda Watkins, the project director, was in a car accident and will not be able to return to work for an extended period of time. Ted Anderson, the executive sponsor is concerned and doesn’t quite know where to go from here. Many hours have been put into research ing this new system.It is on the edge of being adopted by the company and is now in danger of falling behind in the adoption process due to Linda Watkins’ car accident. Everyone involved in this project has taken great strides to do their research to ensure this is the right system for Consumer and Industrial Products, Inc. This company has done a great job with strategic planning. With all the great planning of this project, it doesn’t appear risks were taken into consideration. When working on and planning a project, â€Å"a good approach is to consistently include risk communication in the tasks you carry out.If you have a team meeting, make project risks part of the default agenda (and not the final item on the list! ). † (Jutte) Where was the plan B for this project? Proposal It appears Consumer and Industrial, Inc needs the PAS system in order to process accounts payable more effectively and efficiently. It appears it will save the company money, as well a s keep the vendors happy. Now that Linda Watkins has been injured and cannot return to work for an extended period of time, Ted Anderson will need to visit with Charles Bunke to come up with another plan to keep this project moving.Ted and Charles will need to meet with the other project managers to determine where to go from here. If the lines of communication stay open and they continue to work as a team, they will come up with a solution to keep the project from being put on the back burner. As stated in the article 8 Steps to Implementing Successful Organizational Change, â€Å"Once a change is planned, it is important to have good communication about the rollout and implementation of the change. A timeline should be made for the implementation and should make changes in the order that affect the process and the employees who manage the process.An effective timeline will allow for all new equipment, supplies or training to take place before fully implemented. Implementing witho ut a logical order can create frustration for those responsible for the work process. † Works Cited DeHayes, Daniel W. , et al. Managing Information Technology. Pearson, 2012. Print. â€Å"8 Steps to Implementing Successful Organizational Change. † http://thethrivingsmallbusiness. com/articles/8-steps-to-implementing-successful-organizational-change/ retrieved from web 10/19/2012

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Mrs. Dalloway Study Questions

Discussion questions: 1. In the novel â€Å"Mrs. Dalloway† both Clarissa and Septimus repeat a line from Shakespeare, what is the line and what is its importance to the characters? 2. In â€Å"Mrs. Dalloway† Septimus is created as Clarissa’s double, why do you think Woolf did this? 3. How are Clarissa and Septimus alike and how are they different? 4. Woolf uses Clarissa to convey her idea of social class and women’s wole within it; how does she achieve this? 5. WWI is a major part throughout the story. What ways did Woolf show this? . At the end of the novel Clarissa is informed of Septimus’ death. How does she feel about this and why is it important? 7. Who are Sally Seton and Peter Walsh and how does their appearance in the novel help with the plot? 8. Woolf uses a lot of flash backs to move the plot along. Do these flash backs help or hurt the novel? 9. From Woolf’s use of flash backs can you infer what the characters were like before? 10. What was the point of view in the novel? Why do you think Woolf chose this? Excerpt: (pg. 11-14)She would not say of any one in the world now that they were this or were that. She felt very young; at the same time unspeakably aged. She sliced like a knife through everything; at the same time was outside, looking on. She had a perpetual sense, as she watched the taxi cabs, of being out, out, far out to sea and alone; she always had the feeling that it was very, very dangerous to live even one day. Not that she thought herself clever, or much out of the ordinary. How she had got through life on the few twigs of knowledge Fraulein Daniels gave them she could not think.She knew nothing; no language, no history; she scarcely read a book now, except memoirs in bed; and yet to her it was absolutely absorbing; all this; the cabs passing; and she would not say of Peter, she would not say of herself, I am this, I am that. Her only gift was knowing people almost by instinct, she thought, walk ing on. If you put her in a room with someone, up went her back like a cat's; or she purred. Devonshire House, Bath House, the house with the china cockatoo, she had seen them all lit up once; and remembered Sylvia, Fred, Sally Seton — such hosts of people; and dancing all night; and the waggons plodding past o market; and driving home across the Park. She remembered once throwing a shilling into the Serpentine. But every one remembered; what she loved was this, here, now, in front of her; the fat lady in the cab. Did it matter then, she asked herself, walking towards Bond Street, did it matter that she must inevitably cease completely; all this must go on without her; did she resent it; or did it not become consoling to believe that death ended absolutely? ut that somehow in the streets of London, on the ebb and flow of things, here, there, she survived, Peter survived, lived in each other, she being part, she was positive, of the trees at home; of the house there, ugly, ram bling all to bits and pieces as it was; part of people she had never met; being laid out like a mist between the people she knew best, who lifted her on their branches as she had seen the trees lift the mist, but it spread ever so far, her life, herself. But what was she dreaming as she looked into Hatchards' shop window? What was she trying to recover?What image of white dawn in the country, as she read in the book spread open: Fear no more the heat o' the sun Nor the furious winter's rages. This late age of the world's experience had bred in them all, all men and women, a well of tears. Tears and sorrows; courage and endurance; a perfectly upright and stoical bearing. Think, for example, of the woman she admired most, Lady Bexborough, opening the bazaar. There were Jorrocks' Jaunts and Jollities; there were Soapy Sponge and Mrs. Asquith's Memoirs and Big Game Shooting in Nigeria, all spread open.Ever so many books there were; but none that seemed exactly right to take to Evelyn Wh itbread in her nursing home. Nothing that would serve to amuse her and make that indescribably dried-up little woman look, as Clarissa came in, just for a moment cordial; before they settled down for the usual interminable talk of women's ailments. How much she wanted it — that people should look pleased as she came in, Clarissa thought and turned and walked back towards Bond Street, annoyed, because it was silly to have other reasons for doing things. Much rather would she have been one of those eople like Richard who did things for themselves, whereas, she thought, waiting to cross, half the time she did things not simply, not for themselves; but to make people think this or that; perfect idiocy she knew (and now the policeman held up his hand) for no one was ever for a second taken in. Oh if she could have had her life over again! She thought, stepping on to the pavement, could have looked even differently! She would have been, in the first place, dark like Lady Bexborough , with a skin of crumpled leather and beautiful eyes.She would have been, like Lady Bexborough, slow and stately; rather large; interested in politics like a man; with a country house; very dignified, very sincere. Instead of which she had a narrow pea-stick figure; a ridiculous little face, beaked like a bird's. That she held herself well was true; and had nice hands and feet; and dressed well, considering that she spent little. But often now this body she wore (she stopped to look at a Dutch picture), this body, with all its capacities, seemed nothing — nothing at all.She had the oddest sense of being herself invisible, unseen; unknown; there being no more marrying, no more having of children now, but only this astonishing and rather solemn progress with the rest of them, up Bond Street, this being Mrs. Dalloway; not even Clarissa anymore; this being Mrs. Richard Dalloway. Multiple choice questions for excerpt: 1. What is the attitude throughout the passage? a. Negative tow ard her future. b. Hopeful for her future. c. Positive toward her past. d. Resentful of the choices of her past. 2. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the passage? . To show Clarissa’s hopefulness for the future. b. To show Clarissa’s longing for acceptance and importance in high class society. c. To show how Clarissa wants to help the elderly. d. To show Clarissa’s admiration for Mrs. Bexborough. 3. Clarissa talks about Mrs. Bexborough to show: a. How she wants to be portrayed in society. b. How much she dislikes her. c. How they are alike. d. How they are different. 4. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following qualities is most important to the speaker: a. Independence. b. Being man- like. . Dressing well. d. Respect. 5. In the passage what does Woolf mean by â€Å"did it matter that she must inevitably cease completely; all this must go on without her; did she resent it; or did it not become consoling to believe that d eath ended absolutely? † a. That life goes on after death. b. That she finds comfort in the fact that death stops all human problems, but resents the fact use lose the pleasures also. c. That she is scared of death. d. That none of the things she has done matter after death. Essay prompt for novel: Woolf’s writing style in Mrs.Dalloway is described as â€Å"stream of consciousness,† why do you think Woolf chose this writing style for the novel and would it be less effective if it were written in a different style? The Yellow Wallpaper by: Charlotte Perkins Gilman It is very seldom that mere ordinary people like John and myself secure ancestral halls for the summer. A colonial mansion, a hereditary estate, I would say a haunted house, and reach the height of romantic felicity–but that would be asking too much of fate! Still I will proudly declare that there is something queer about it.Else, why should it be let so cheaply? And why have stood so long untenan ted? John laughs at me, of course, but one expects that in marriage. John is practical in the extreme. He has no patience with faith, an intense horror of superstition, and he scoffs openly at any talk of things not to be felt and seen and put down in figures. John is a physician, and perhaps–(I would not say it to a living soul, of course, but this is dead paper and a great relief to my mind)–perhaps that is one reason I do not get well faster. You see he does not believe I am sick! And what can one do?If a physician of high standing, and one's own husband, assures friends and relatives that there is really nothing the matter with one but temporary nervous depression–a slight hysterical tendency– what is one to do? My brother is also a physician, and also of high standing, and he says the same thing. So I take phosphates or phosphites–whichever it is, and tonics, and journeys, and air, and exercise, and am absolutely forbidden to â€Å"work† until I am well again. Personally, I disagree with their ideas. Personally, I believe that congenial work, with excitement and change, would do me good.But what is one to do? I did write for a while in spite of them; but it does exhaust me a good deal–having to be so sly about it, or else meet with heavy opposition. I sometimes fancy that in my condition if I had less opposition and more society and stimulus–but John says the very worst thing I can do is to think about my condition, and I confess it always makes me feel bad. So I will let it alone and talk about the house. The most beautiful place! It is quite alone standing well back from the road, quite three miles from the village.It makes me think of English places that you read about, for there are hedges and walls and gates that lock, and lots of separate little houses for the gardeners and people. There is a delicious garden! I never saw such a garden–large and shady, full of box-bordered paths, and lin ed with long grape-covered arbors with seats under them. There were greenhouses, too, but they are all broken now. There was some legal trouble, I believe, something about the heirs and coheirs; anyhow, the place has been empty for years. That spoils my ghostliness, I am afraid, but I don't care–there is something strange about the house–I can feel it.I even said so to John one moonlight evening but he said what I felt was a draught, and shut the window. I get unreasonably angry with John sometimes I'm sure I never used to be so sensitive. I think it is due to this nervous condition. But John says if I feel so, I shall neglect proper self-control; so I take pains to control myself– before him, at least, and that makes me very tired. I don't like our room a bit. I wanted one downstairs that opened on the piazza and had roses all over the window, and such pretty old-fashioned chintz hangings! but John would not hear of it.He said there was only one window and not room for two beds, and no near room for him if he took another. He is very careful and loving, and hardly lets me stir without special direction. I have a schedule prescription for each hour in the day; he takes all care from me, and so I feel basely ungrateful not to value it more. He said we came here solely on my account, that I was to have perfect rest and all the air I could get. â€Å"Your exercise depends on your strength, my dear,† said he, â€Å"and your food somewhat on your appetite; but air you can absorb all the time. So we took the nursery at the top of the house. It is a big, airy room, the whole floor nearly, with windows that look all ways, and air and sunshine galore. It was nursery first and then playroom and gymnasium, I should judge; for the windows are barred for little children, and there are rings and things in the walls. The paint and paper look as if a boys' school had used it. It is stripped off–the paper in great patches all around the head of my bed, about as far as I can reach, and in a great place on the other side of the room low down. I never saw a worse paper in my life.One of those sprawling flamboyant patterns committing every artistic sin. It is dull enough to confuse the eye in following, pronounced enough to constantly irritate and provoke study, and when you follow the lame uncertain curves for a little distance they suddenly commit suicide–plunge off at outrageous angles, destroy themselves in unheard of contradictions. The color is repellent, almost revolting; a smouldering unclean yellow, strangely faded by the slow-turning sunlight. It is a dull yet lurid orange in some places, a sickly sulphur tint in others.No wonder the children hated it! I should hate it myself if I had to live in this room long. There comes John, and I must put this away,–he hates to have me write a word. ———- We have been here two weeks, and I haven't felt like writing before, since that first d ay. I am sitting by the window now, up in this atrocious nursery, and there is nothing to hinder my writing as much as I please, save lack of strength. John is away all day, and even some nights when his cases are serious. I am glad my case is not serious! But these nervous troubles are dreadfully depressing.John does not know how much I really suffer. He knows there is no reason to suffer, and that satisfies him. Of course it is only nervousness. It does weigh on me so not to do my duty in any way! I meant to be such a help to John, such a real rest and comfort, and here I am a comparative burden already! Nobody would believe what an effort it is to do what little I am able,–to dress and entertain, and order things. It is fortunate Mary is so good with the baby. Such a dear baby! And yet I cannot be with him, it makes me so nervous.I suppose John never was nervous in his life. He laughs at me so about this wall-paper! At first he meant to repaper the room, but afterwards he said that I was letting it get the better of me, and that nothing was worse for a nervous patient than to give way to such fancies. He said that after the wall-paper was changed it would be the heavy bedstead, and then the barred windows, and then that gate at the head of the stairs, and so on. â€Å"You know the place is doing you good,† he said, â€Å"and really, dear, I don't care to renovate the house just for a three months' rental. â€Å"Then do let us go downstairs,† I said, â€Å"there are such pretty rooms there. † Then he took me in his arms and called me a blessed little goose, and said he would go down to the cellar, if I wished, and have it whitewashed into the bargain. But he is right enough about the beds and windows and things. It is an airy and comfortable room as any one need wish, and, of course, I would not be so silly as to make him uncomfortable just for a whim. I'm really getting quite fond of the big room, all but that horrid paper.Out o f one window I can see the garden, those mysterious deepshaded arbors, the riotous old-fashioned flowers, and bushes and gnarly trees. Out of another I get a lovely view of the bay and a little private wharf belonging to the estate. There is a beautiful shaded lane that runs down there from the house. I always fancy I see people walking in these numerous paths and arbors, but John has cautioned me not to give way to fancy in the least. He says that with my imaginative power and habit of story-making, a nervous weakness like mine is sure to lead to all manner of excited fancies, nd that I ought to use my will and good sense to check the tendency. So I try. I think sometimes that if I were only well enough to write a little it would relieve the press of ideas and rest me. But I find I get pretty tired when I try. It is so discouraging not to have any advice and companionship about my work. When I get really well, John says we will ask Cousin Henry and Julia down for a long visit; but he says he would as soon put fireworks in my pillow-case as to let me have those stimulating people about now. I wish I could get well faster. But I must not think about that.This paper looks to me as if it knew what a vicious influence it had! There is a recurrent spot where the pattern lolls like a broken neck and two bulbous eyes stare at you upside down. I get positively angry with the impertinence of it and the everlastingness. Up and down and sideways they crawl, and those absurd, unblinking eyes are everywhere There is one place where two breaths didn't match, and the eyes go all up and down the line, one a little higher than the other. I never saw so much expression in an inanimate thing before, and we all know how much expression they have!I used to lie awake as a child and get more entertainment and terror out of blank walls and plain furniture than most children could find in a toy-store. I remember what a kindly wink the knobs of our big, old bureau used to have, and the re was one chair that always seemed like a strong friend. I used to feel that if any of the other things looked too fierce I could always hop into that chair and be safe. The furniture in this room is no worse than inharmonious, however, for we had to bring it all from downstairs. I suppose when this was used as a playroom they had to take the nursery things out, and no wonder!I never saw such ravages as the children have made here. The wall-paper, as I said before, is torn off in spots, and it sticketh closer than a brother–they must have had perseverance as well as hatred. Then the floor is scratched and gouged and splintered, the plaster itself is dug out here and there, and this great heavy bed which is all we found in the room, looks as if it had been through the wars. But I don't mind it a bit–only the paper. There comes John's sister. Such a dear girl as she is, and so careful of me! I must not let her find me writing.She is a perfect and enthusiastic housekeepe r, and hopes for no better profession. I verily believe she thinks it is the writing which made me sick! But I can write when she is out, and see her a long way off from these windows. There is one that commands the road, a lovely shaded winding road, and one that just looks off over the country. A lovely country, too, full of great elms and velvet meadows. This wall-paper has a kind of sub-pattern in a, different shade, a particularly irritating one, for you can only see it in certain lights, and not clearly then.But in the places where it isn't faded and where the sun is just so–I can see a strange, provoking, formless sort of figure, that seems to skulk about behind that silly and conspicuous front design. There's sister on the stairs! ———- Well, the Fourth of July is over! The people are all gone and I am tired out. John thought it might do me good to see a little company, so we just had mother and Nellie and the children down for a week. Of course I didn't do a thing. Jennie sees to everything now. But it tired me all the same. John says if I don't pick up faster he shall send me to Weir Mitchell in the fall.But I don't want to go there at all. I had a friend who was in his hands once, and she says he is just like John and my brother, only more so! Besides, it is such an undertaking to go so far. I don't feel as if it was worth while to turn my hand over for anything, and I'm getting dreadfully fretful and querulous. I cry at nothing, and cry most of the time. Of course I don't when John is here, or anybody else, but when I am alone. And I am alone a good deal just now. John is kept in town very often by serious cases, and Jennie is good and lets me alone when I want her to.So I walk a little in the garden or down that lovely lane, sit on the porch under the roses, and lie down up here a good deal. I'm getting really fond of the room in spite of the wall-paper. Perhaps because of the wall-paper. It dwells in my mind so! I lie h ere on this great immovable bed–it is nailed down, I believe–and follow that pattern about by the hour. It is as good as gymnastics, I assure you. I start, we'll say, at the bottom, down in the corner over there where it has not been touched, and I determine for the thousandth time that I will follow that pointless pattern to some sort of a conclusion.I know a little of the principle of design, and I know this thing was not arranged on any laws of radiation, or alternation, or repetition, or symmetry, or anything else that I ever heard of. It is repeated, of course, by the breadths, but not otherwise. Looked at in one way each breadth stands alone, the bloated curves and flourishes–a kind of â€Å"debased Romanesque† with delirium tremens–go waddling up and down in isolated columns of fatuity. But, on the other hand, they connect diagonally, and the sprawling outlines run off in great slanting waves of optic horror, like a lot of wallowing seaweeds in full chase.The whole thing goes horizontally, too, at least it seems so, and I exhaust myself in trying to distinguish the order of its going in that direction. They have used a horizontal breadth for a frieze, and that adds wonderfully to the confusion. There is one end of the room where it is almost intact, and there, when the crosslights fade and the low sun shines directly upon it, I can almost fancy radiation after all,–the interminable grotesques seem to form around a common centre and rush off in headlong plunges of equal distraction. It makes me tired to follow it.I will take a nap I guess. ———- I don't know why I should write this. I don't want to. I don't feel able. And I know John would think it absurd. But I must say what I feel and think in some way–it is such a relief! But the effort is getting to be greater than the relief. Half the time now I am awfully lazy, and lie down ever so much. John says I mustn't lose my strength, and h as me take cod liver oil and lots of tonics and things, to say nothing of ale and wine and rare meat. Dear John! He loves me very dearly, and hates to have me sick.I tried to have a real earnest reasonable talk with him the other day, and tell him how I wish he would let me go and make a visit to Cousin Henry and Julia. But he said I wasn't able to go, nor able to stand it after I got there; and I did not make out a very good case for myself, for I was crying before I had finished . It is getting to be a great effort for me to think straight. Just this nervous weakness I suppose. And dear John gathered me up in his arms, and just carried me upstairs and laid me on the bed, and sat by me and read to me till it tired my head.He said I was his darling and his comfort and all he had, and that I must take care of myself for his sake, and keep well. He says no one but myself can help me out of it, that I must use my will and self-control and not let any silly fancies run away with me. The re's one comfort, the baby is well and happy, and does not have to occupy this nursery with the horrid wall-paper. If we had not used it, that blessed child would have! What a fortunate escape! Why, I wouldn't have a child of mine, an impressionable little thing, live in such a room for worlds.I never thought of it before, but it is lucky that John kept me here after all, I can stand it so much easier than a baby, you see. Of course I never mention it to them any more–I am too wise,–but I keep watch of it all the same. There are things in that paper that nobody knows but me, or ever will. Behind that outside pattern the dim shapes get clearer every day. It is always the same shape, only very numerous. And it is like a woman stooping down and creeping about behind that pattern. I don't like it a bit. I wonder–I begin to think–I wish John would take me away from here! ———-It is so hard to talk with John about my case, because he is so w ise, and because he loves me so. But I tried it last night. It was moonlight. The moon shines in all around just as the sun does. I hate to see it sometimes, it creeps so slowly, and always comes in by one window or another. John was asleep and I hated to waken him, so I kept still and watched the moonlight on that undulating wall-paper till I felt creepy. The faint figure behind seemed to shake the pattern, just as if she wanted to get out. I got up softly and went to feel and see if the paper did move, and when I came back John was awake. â€Å"What is it, little girl? he said. â€Å"Don't go walking about like that–you'll get cold. † I thought it was a good time to talk, so I told him that I really was not gaining here, and that I wished he would take me away. â€Å"Why darling! † said he, â€Å"our lease will be up in three weeks, and I can't see how to leave before. â€Å"The repairs are not done at home, and I cannot possibly leave town just now. Of cou rse if you were in any danger, I could and would, but you really are better, dear, whether you can see it or not. I am a doctor, dear, and I know. You are gaining flesh and color, your appetite is better, I feel really much easier about you. â€Å"I don't weigh a bit more,† said 1, â€Å"nor as much; and my appetite may be better in the evening when you are here, but it is worse in the morning when you are away! † â€Å"Bless her little heart! † said he with a big hug, â€Å"she shall be as sick as she pleases! But now let's improve the shining hours by going to sleep, and talk about it in the morning! † â€Å"And you won't go away? † I asked gloomily. â€Å"Why, how can 1, dear? It is only three weeks more and then we will take a nice little trip of a few days while Jennie is getting the house ready. Really dear you are better! â€Å"Better in body perhaps–† I began, and stopped short, for he sat up straight and looked at me with su ch a stern, reproachful look that I could not say another word. â€Å"My darling,† said he, â€Å"I beg of you, for my sake and for our child's sake, as well as for your own, that you will never for one instant let that idea enter your mind! There is nothing so dangerous, so fascinating, to a temperament like yours. It is a false and foolish fancy. Can you not trust me as a physician when I tell you so? † So of course I said no more on that score, and we went to sleep before long.He thought I was asleep first, but I wasn't, and lay there for hours trying to decide whether that front pattern and the back pattern really did move together or separately. ———- On a pattern like this, by daylight, there is a lack of sequence, a defiance of law, that is a constant irritant to a normal mind. The color is hideous enough, and unreliable enough, and infuriating enough, but the pattern is torturing. You think you have mastered it, but just as you get well unde rway in following, it turns a back somersault and there you are. It slaps you in the face, knocks you down, and tramples upon you.It is like a bad dream. The outside pattern is a florid arabesque, reminding one of a fungus. If you can imagine a toadstool in joints, an interminable string of toadstools, budding and sprouting in endless convolutions–why, that is something like it. That is, sometimes! There is one marked peculiarity about this paper, a thing nobody seems to notice but myself, and that is that it changes as the light changes. When the sun shoots in through the east window–I always watch for that first long, straight ray–it changes so quickly that I never can quite believe it. That is why I watch it always.By moonlight–the moon shines in all night when there is a moon–I wouldn't know it was the same paper. At night in any kind of light, in twilight, candlelight, lamplight, and worst of all by moonlight, it becomes bars! The outside patt ern I mean, and the woman behind it is as plain as can be. I didn't realize for a long time what the thing was that showed behind, that dim sub-pattern, but now I am quite sure it is a woman. By daylight she is subdued, quiet. I fancy it is the pattern that keeps her so still. It is so puzzling. It keeps me quiet by the hour. I lie down ever so much now. John says it is good for me, and to sleep all I can.Indeed he started the habit by making me lie down for an hour after each meal. It is a very bad habit I am convinced, for you see I don't sleep. And that cultivates deceit, for I don't tell them I'm awake–O no! The fact is I am getting a little afraid of John. He seems very queer sometimes, and even Jennie has an inexplicable look. It strikes me occasionally, just as a scientific hypothesis,–that perhaps it is the paper! I have watched John when he did not know I was looking, and come into the room suddenly on the most innocent excuses, and I've caught him several tim es looking at the paper! And Jennie too.I caught Jennie with her hand on it once. She didn't know I was in the room, and when I asked her in a quiet, a very quiet voice, with the most restrained manner possible, what she was doing with the paper–she turned around as if she had been caught stealing, and looked quite angry– asked me why I should frighten her so! Then she said that the paper stained everything it touched, that she had found yellow smooches on all my clothes and John's, and she wished we would be more careful! Did not that sound innocent? But I know she was studying that pattern, and I am determined that nobody shall find it out but myself! ———-Life is very much more exciting now than it used to be. You see I have something more to expect, to look forward to, to watch. I really do eat better, and am more quiet than I was. John is so pleased to see me improve ! He laughed a little the other day, and said I seemed to be flourishing in sp ite of my wall-paper. I turned it off with a laugh. I had no intention of telling him it was because of the wall-paper–he would make fun of me. He might even want to take me away. I don't want to leave now until I have found it out. There is a week more, and I think that will be enough. ———- I'm feeling ever so much better!I don't sleep much at night, for it is so interesting to watch developments; but I sleep a good deal in the daytime. In the daytime it is tiresome and perplexing. There are always new shoots on the fungus, and new shades of yellow all over it. I cannot keep count of them, though I have tried conscientiously. It is the strangest yellow, that wall-paper! It makes me think of all the yellow things I ever saw–not beautiful ones like buttercups, but old foul, bad yellow things. But there is something else about that paper– the smell! I noticed it the moment we came into the room, but with so much air and sun it was not bad.Now we have had a week of fog and rain, and whether the windows are open or not, the smell is here. It creeps all over the house. I find it hovering in the dining-room, skulking in the parlor, hiding in the hall, lying in wait for me on the stairs. It gets into my hair. Even when I go to ride, if I turn my head suddenly and surprise it–there is that smell! Such a peculiar odor, too! I have spent hours in trying to analyze it, to find what it smelled like. It is not bad–at first, and very gentle, but quite the subtlest, most enduring odor I ever met. In this damp weather it is awful, I wake up in the night and find it hanging over me.It used to disturb me at first. I thought seriously of burning the house–to reach the smell. But now I am used to it. The only thing I can think of that it is like is the color of the paper! A yellow smell. There is a very funny mark on this wall, low down, near the mopboard. A streak that runs round the room. It goes behind every piece of furniture, except the bed, a long, straight, even smooch, as if it had been rubbed over and over. I wonder how it was done and who did it, and what they did it for. Round and round and round–round and round and round–it makes me dizzy! ———-I really have discovered something at last. Through watching so much at night, when it changes so, I have finally found out. The front pattern does move–and no wonder! The woman behind shakes it! Sometimes I think there are a great many women behind, and sometimes only one, and she crawls around fast, and her crawling shakes it all over. Then in the very bright spots she keeps still, and in the very shady spots she just takes hold of the bars and shakes them hard. And she is all the time trying to climb through. But nobody could climb through that pattern–it strangles so; I think that is why it has so many heads.They get through, and then the pattern strangles them off and turns them upside down, and makes their eyes white! If those heads were covered or taken off it would not be half so bad. ———- I think that woman gets out in the daytime! And I'll tell you why–privately–I've seen her! I can see her out of every one of my windows! It is the same woman, I know, for she is always creeping, and most women do not creep by daylight. I see her on that long road under the trees, creeping along, and when a carriage comes she hides under the blackberry vines. I don't blame her a bit.It must be very humiliating to be caught creeping by daylight! I always lock the door when I creep by daylight. I can't do it at night, for I know John would suspect something at once. And John is so queer now, that I don't want to irritate him. I wish he would take another room! Besides, I don't want anybody to get that woman out at night but myself. I often wonder if I could see her out of all the windows at once. But, turn as fast as I can, I can only see out of one at one time. And though I always see her, she may be able to creep faster than I can turn!I have watched her sometimes away off in the open country, creeping as fast as a cloud shadow in a high wind. ———- If only that top pattern could be gotten off from the under one! I mean to try it, little by little. I have found out another funny thing, but I shan't tell it this time! It does not do to trust people too much. There are only two more days to get this paper off, and I believe John is beginning to notice. I don't like the look in his eyes. And I heard him ask Jennie a lot of professional questions about me. She had a very good report to give. She said I slept a good deal in the daytime.John knows I don't sleep very well at night, for all I'm so quiet! He asked me all sorts of questions, too, and pretended to be very loving and kind. As if I couldn't see through him! Still, I don't wonder he acts so, sleeping under this paper for three months. It only interests me, but I feel sure John and Jennie are secretly affected by it. ———- Hurrah! This is the last day, but it is enough. John to stay in town over night, and won't be out until this evening. Jennie wanted to sleep with me–the sly thing! but I told her I should undoubtedly rest better for a night all alone. That was clever, for really I wasn't alone a bit!As soon as it was moonlight and that poor thing began to crawl and shake the pattern, I got up and ran to help her. I pulled and she shook, I shook and she pulled, and before morning we had peeled off yards of that paper. A strip about as high as my head and half around the room. And then when the sun came and that awful pattern began to laugh at me, I declared I would finish it to-day! We go away to-morrow, and they are moving all my furniture down again to leave things as they were before. Jennie looked at the wall in amazement, but I told her merrily that I did it out of pure spite at the vicious thing.S he laughed and said she wouldn't mind doing it herself, but I must not get tired. How she betrayed herself that time! But I am here, and no person touches this paper but me,–not alive ! She tried to get me out of the room–it was too patent! But I said it was so quiet and empty and clean now that I believed I would lie down again and sleep all I could; and not to wake me even for dinner–I would call when I woke. So now she is gone, and the servants are gone, and the things are gone, and there is nothing left but that great bedstead nailed down, with the canvas mattress we found on it.We shall sleep downstairs to-night, and take the boat home to-morrow. I quite enjoy the room, now it is bare again. How those children did tear about here! This bedstead is fairly gnawed! But I must get to work. I have locked the door and thrown the key down into the front path. I don't want to go out, and I don't want to have anybody come in, till John comes. I want to astonish him. I've got a rope up here that even Jennie did not find. If that woman does get out, and tries to get away, I can tie her! But I forgot I could not reach far without anything to stand on!This bed will not move! I tried to lift and push it until I was lame, and then I got so angry I bit off a little piece at one corner–but it hurt my teeth. Then I peeled off all the paper I could reach standing on the floor. It sticks horribly and the pattern just enjoys it! All those strangled heads and bulbous eyes and waddling fungus growths just shriek with derision! I am getting angry enough to do something desperate. To jump out of the window would be admirable exercise, but the bars are too strong even to try. Besides I wouldn't do it. Of course not.I know well enough that a step like that is improper and might be misconstrued. I don't like to look out of the windows even– there are so many of those creeping women, and they creep so fast. I wonder if they all come out of that wall -paper as I did? But I am securely fastened now by my well-hidden rope–you don't get me out in the road there ! I suppose I shall have to get back behind the pattern when it comes night, and that is hard! It is so pleasant to be out in this great room and creep around as I please! I don't want to go outside. I won't, even if Jennie asks me to.For outside you have to creep on the ground, and everything is green instead of yellow. But here I can creep smoothly on the floor, and my shoulder just fits in that long smooch around the wall, so I cannot lose my way. Why there's John at the door! It is no use, young man, you can't open it! How he does call and pound! Now he's crying for an axe. It would be a shame to break down that beautiful door! â€Å"John dear! † said I in the gentlest voice, â€Å"the key is down by the front steps, under a plantain leaf! † That silenced him for a few moments. Then he said–very quietly indeed, â€Å"Open the door, my darling ! â€Å"I can't,† said I. â€Å"The key is down by the front door under a plantain leaf! † And then I said it again, several times, very gently and slowly, and said it so often that he had to go and see, and he got it of course, and came in. He stopped short by the door. â€Å"What is the matter? † he cried. â€Å"For God's sake, what are you doing! † I kept on creeping just the same, but I looked at him over my shoulder. â€Å"I've got out at last,† said I, â€Å"in spite of you and Jane. And I've pulled off most of the paper, so you can't put me back! † Now why should that man have fainted?But he did, and right across my path by the wall, so that I had to creep over him every time! The story of an hour by: Kate Chopin Knowing that Mrs. Mallard was afflicted with a heart trouble, great care was taken to break to her as gently as possible the news of her husband's death. It was her sister Josephine who told her, in broken sentences; veiled h ints that revealed in half concealing. Her husband's friend Richards was there, too, near her. It was he who had been in the newspaper office when intelligence of the railroad disaster was received, with Brently Mallard's name leading the list of â€Å"killed. He had only taken the time to assure himself of its truth by a second telegram, and had hastened to forestall any less careful, less tender friend in bearing the sad message. She did not hear the story as many women have heard the same, with a paralyzed inability to accept its significance. She wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sister's arms. When the storm of grief had spent itself she went away to her room alone. She would have no one follow her. There stood, facing the open window, a comfortable, roomy armchair.Into this she sank, pressed down by a physical exhaustion that haunted her body and seemed to reach into her soul. She could see in the open square before her house the tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life. The delicious breath of rain was in the air. In the street below a peddler was crying his wares. The notes of a distant song which some one was singing reached her faintly, and countless sparrows were twittering in the eaves. There were patches of blue sky showing here and there through the clouds that had met and piled one above the other in the west facing her window.She sat with her head thrown back upon the cushion of the chair, quite motionless, except when a sob came up into her throat and shook her, as a child who has cried itself to sleep continues to sob in its dreams. She was young, with a fair, calm face, whose lines bespoke repression and even a certain strength. But now there was a dull stare in her eyes, whose gaze was fixed away off yonder on one of those patches of blue sky. It was not a glance of reflection, but rather indicated a suspension of intelligent thought. There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfu lly. What was it?She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name. But she felt it, creeping out of the sky, reaching toward her through the sounds, the scents, the color that filled the air. Now her bosom rose and fell tumultuously. She was beginning to recognize this thing that was approaching to possess her, and she was striving to beat it back with her will–as powerless as her two white slender hands would have been. When she abandoned herself a little whispered word escaped her slightly parted lips. She said it over and over under hte breath: â€Å"free, free, free! † The vacant stare and the look of terror that had followed it went from her eyes.They stayed keen and bright. Her pulses beat fast, and the coursing blood warmed and relaxed every inch of her body. She did not stop to ask if it were or were not a monstrous joy that held her. A clear and exalted perception enabled her to dismiss the suggestion as trivial. She knew that she would weep again when she saw the kind, tender hands folded in death; the face that had never looked save with love upon her, fixed and gray and dead. But she saw beyond that bitter moment a long procession of years to come that would belong to her absolutely. And she opened and spread her arms out to them in welcome.There would be no one to live for during those coming years; she would live for herself. There would be no powerful will bending hers in that blind persistence with which men and women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon a fellow-creature. A kind intention or a cruel intention made the act seem no less a crime as she looked upon it in that brief moment of illumination. And yet she had loved him–sometimes. Often she had not. What did it matter! What could love, the unsolved mystery, count for in the face of this possession of self-assertion which she suddenly recognized as the strongest impulse of her being! Free! Body and soul free! † she kept whispering. Jos ephine was kneeling before the closed door with her lips to the keyhold, imploring for admission. â€Å"Louise, open the door! I beg; open the door–you will make yourself ill. What are you doing, Louise? For heaven's sake open the door. † â€Å"Go away. I am not making myself ill. † No; she was drinking in a very elixir of life through that open window. Her fancy was running riot along those days ahead of her. Spring days, and summer days, and all sorts of days that would be her own. She breathed a quick prayer that life might be long.It was only yesterday she had thought with a shudder that life might be long. She arose at length and opened the door to her sister's importunities. There was a feverish triumph in her eyes, and she carried herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory. She clasped her sister's waist, and together they descended the stairs. Richards stood waiting for them at the bottom. Some one was opening the front door with a latchkey. It was Br ently Mallard who entered, a little travel-stained, composedly carrying his grip-sack and umbrella. He had been far from the scene of the accident, and did not even know there had been one.He stood amazed at Josephine's piercing cry; at Richards' quick motion to screen him from the view of his wife. When the doctors came they said she had died of heart disease–of the joy that kills. Essay prompt for short story: In the short story â€Å"the story of an hour† Chopin uses the word ‘open’ repeatedly, why do you think this and what is the significance of it? Lady Lazarus by Sylvia Plath I have done it again. One year in every ten I manage it– A sort of walking miracle, my skin Bright as a Nazi lampshade, My right foot A paperweight, My face a featureless, fine Jew linen. Peel off the napkin O my enemy.Do I terrify? — The nose, the eye pits, the full set of teeth? The sour breath Will vanish in a day. Soon, soon the flesh The grave cave ate will b e At home on me And I a smiling woman. I am only thirty. And like the cat I have nine times to die. This is Number Three. What a trash To annihilate each decade. What a million filaments. The peanut-crunching crowd Shoves in to see Them unwrap me hand and foot– The big strip tease. Gentlemen, ladies These are my hands My knees. I may be skin and bone, Nevertheless, I am the same, identical woman. The first time it happened I was ten. It was an accident.The second time I meant To last it out and not come back at all. I rocked shut As a seashell. They had to call and call And pick the worms off me like sticky pearls. Dying Is an art, like everything else. I do it exceptionally well. I do it so it feels like hell. I do it so it feels real. I guess you could say I've a call. It's easy enough to do it in a cell. It's easy enough to do it and stay put. It's the theatrical Comeback in broad day To the same place, the same face, the same brute Amused shout: ‘A miracle! ‘ That knocks me out. There is a charge For the eyeing of my scars, there is a chargeFor the hearing of my heart– It really goes. And there is a charge, a very large charge For a word or a touch Or a bit of blood Or a piece of my hair or my clothes. So, so, Herr Doktor. So, Herr Enemy. I am your opus, I am your valuable, The pure gold baby That melts to a shriek. I turn and burn. Do not think I underestimate your great concern. Ash, ash– You poke and stir. Flesh, bone, there is nothing there– A cake of soap, A wedding ring, A gold filling. Herr God, Herr Lucifer Beware Beware. Out of the ash I rise with my red hair And I eat men like air. Daddy by: Sylvia Plath You do not do, you do not doAny more, black shoe In which I have lived like a foot For thirty years, poor and white, Barely daring to breathe or Achoo. Daddy, I have had to kill you. You died before I had time– Marble-heavy, a bag full of God, Ghastly statue with one gray toe Big as a Frisco seal And a head in the freakish Atlantic Where it pours bean green over blue In the waters off beautiful Nauset. I used to pray to recover you. Ach, du. In the German tongue, in the Polish town Scraped flat by the roller Of wars, wars, wars. But the name of the town is common. My Polack friend Says there are a dozen or two. So I never could tell where youPut your foot, your root, I never could talk to you. The tongue stuck in my jaw. It stuck in a barb wire snare. Ich, ich, ich, ich, I could hardly speak. I thought every German was you. And the language obscene An engine, an engine Chuffing me off like a Jew. A Jew to Dachau, Auschwitz, Belsen. I began to talk like a Jew. I think I may well be a Jew. The snows of the Tyrol, the clear beer of Vienna Are not very pure or true. With my gipsy ancestress and my weird luck And my Taroc pack and my Taroc pack I may be a bit of a Jew. I have always been scared of you, With your Luftwaffe, your gobbledygoo. And your neat mustacheAnd your Aryan eye, bright blue. Panzer-man, panzer-man, O You– Not God but a swastika So black no sky could squeak through. Every woman adores a Fascist, The boot in the face, the brute Brute heart of a brute like you. You stand at the blackboard, daddy, In the picture I have of you, A cleft in your chin instead of your foot But no less a devil for that, no not Any less the black man who Bit my pretty red heart in two. I was ten when they buried you. At twenty I tried to die And get back, back, back to you. I thought even the bones would do. But they pulled me out of the sack, And they stuck me together with glue.And then I knew what to do. I made a model of you, A man in black with a Meinkampf look And a love of the rack and the screw. And I said I do, I do. So daddy, I'm finally through. The black telephone's off at the root, The voices just can't worm through. If I've killed one man, I've killed two– The vampire who said he was you And drank my blood for a year, Seven years, if you wa nt to know. Daddy, you can lie back now. There's a stake in your fat black heart And the villagers never liked you. They are dancing and stamping on you. They always knew it was you. Daddy, daddy, you bastard, I'm through.Lets hear it for the women The women oppressed by: Francis Duggan Lets hear it for women the women oppressed In patriarchal societies their human rights are transgressed By male religious zealots who hate woman kind For to trample on women's rights any excuse they will find. Lets hear it for the women who never receive a fair go Of equality in their lives they never may know They are seen as inferior where males reign supreme And this can do little for their self esteem. Lets hear it for the women who must play second fiddle to men Where to be born a female means one cannot win Promotion in work or promotion in lifeTo an arrogant and an unfaithful man expected to be a good wife. Lets hear it for women the women men do rule And many males in positions of power can b e cruel The mothers of the children in life the hardest role Equality they need and not male control. P. O. W (Poor Oprressed Women) by: Sama Wareh Hello oppressed, With that scarf around your head, That you surely must dread, Aren't you hot? Can't you see it's sunny, Aren't your ears cold, They try to be funny, But some seriously suggest, That I am oppressed, Because I can't flaunt what I got, And they look at the way that I'm dressed, All covered up, From head to toe,How am I to attract the men, Without a little show? So I tell them, I'm oppressed, Because men can't see past the fabric? They are stuck with a conversation And a brain to pick, I flaunt, Yes I do, My personality is what I flaunt, I swear, it's true, I aint no object In men's desire, Nor am I a curve size, Because I have attire, And they tell me, Well, you were forced, Obviously, Your dad had a belt, And so you agreed, No, it was my choice, I did agree, In fact, After I did cover up, Men stopped checking out my behind , And started looking at who I am on the inside, And after I did, Respect came my way,Heads didn't turn lolling as I passed men's way, But I guess some like that attention, And women, This isn't a stab at you, I'm just expressing my point of view, After dealing with stereotypes of what people tell me I am, I can even see it in their eyes, Like my attire should be banned, And especially older women, Look at me with pity, Poor child, I wish I could help her and show her the way, Cause according to Fox tv, they've gone astray, Poor abused women, dressed in black, Can't those mean men cut them a little slack? But to their surprise, I choose to wear it, To me its freedom, Freedom from fashion implications,Telling you how to talk, dress and look, Advertising the new trend, To get you on the hook, Of being what the fashion industry can make money off of, I wear what I want and dress to impress, Myself and God, And nobody else, I wear pants and I wear skirts, I wear socks and long shirts, A nd if my name callers aren't happen with that, Then come and liberate me, Which in now a day's terms, Means kill me. Discussion questions for the poems: 1. In the poems â€Å"Lets Hear It For Women The Women Oppressed† and â€Å"P. O. W (Poor Oppressed Woman),† there are two different views on women’s oppression. What are these views? 2. In the poem â€Å"P. O.W (Poor Oppressed Women)†, what image does Wareh portray throughout? What words make you think this? 3. In the poem â€Å"Lady Lazarus,† Plath refers to herself as a cat with nine times to die, why do you think she chose these words and what is the importance of them? 4. After reading â€Å"lets hear it for the women the women oppressed,† what do you think Duggan’s view on women’s oppression is and how does she convey this in her poem? 5. After reading â€Å"P. O. W (Poor Oppressed Women),† how do you think Wareh views oppression and how does she show this in her p oem? 6. In â€Å"Lady Lazarus,† what images does Plath use and how are they effective? . In the poem â€Å"Daddy† by Sylvia Plath, Plath uses the word ‘daddy’ instead of ‘father’, do you think this changes the way the reader views the poem? How? 8. In the poem â€Å"Daddy,† could ‘daddy’ be something besides her father? How? 9. In the poem â€Å"Lady Lazarus,† Plath chooses the word ‘Miracle’, in what tone do you think she used this? 10. In â€Å"Lets hear it for the women the women oppressed,† how do you think Duggan’s word chose sets the mood for the poem? Thomas 1 Kelley Thomas Ms. Flara AP English IV October 22, 2012 The theme of Women’s oppression and how it is viewed by Clarissa I read the novel â€Å"Mrs. Dalloway† by: Virginia Woolf.There are many themes throughout this novel but while reading it one was most apparent and that is the theme of Women’s oppression and how it is viewed by the Clarissa. Woolf uses the novel to show how she feels about society and oppression, especially toward women. The social setting and time period set the mood for this theme. London is returning to its social normalcies and women are moving back toward being housewives instead of working in munitions factories. She often shows her dislike of this through Clarissa. It has become a sort of way of life for her and she doesn’t truly notice she is even a part of it.