Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Nutrition on Academic Performance

April Creed April 12, 2012 GWRTC 103 Professor Critzer The Effect of Nutrition and Fitness on Academic Performance The health and overall fitness of adolescents and students has taken a radical turn in the most recent decades. Each year the overall body mass index of this particular group of individuals is steadily increasing. It seems to many that one’s health is a vital role in success, especially in the academic realm. Research was conducted to see whether this slight decrease of fitness and health has an impact on a student’s academic performance (Burkhalter 201).A broad range of sources was utilized to find other factors that played a role in academic performance such as family life and sleep habits. The search was then strictly narrowed down to the effect of nutrition and fitness on scholastic performance. By the end of the investigation, it was found that nutrition is vital to brain functioning and cognition. The main point that was targeted became: skipped meals are the largest cause of unhealthy habits in a student’s academic career, but this can be prevented by providing more food options for students and also by not having available classes during meal hours.This seems like a cliche issue and obvious topic, but this simple subject can have a huge impact on the lives of our adolescents, but more importantly the future of our country. Children, adolescents, and young adults are constantly bombarded with assessments, evaluations, and exams that test their knowledge. All of these, combined with everyday lectures and studying, form to make what society knows as â€Å"school. † In today’s culture, from roughly four years old until about twenty-three years old, schooling (pre-school, elementary school, middle school, high school, and college) is a young person’s career.It is a time consuming process that involves commitment and dedication. Many factors play a role in how well a student performs. The most thought of, and prominent factors may include family life, time dedicated to studying, sleep habits, and the teachers or professors ability to relay information. One study, conducted by A. H. Eliassion, investigated the relative importance of total sleep time compared to a college student’s academic performance (Eliasson 71). The results proved that those with the highest academic performance had significantly earlier bedtimes and wake times (73).It was found that students could improve their academic performance by targeting their sleep habits (73). Another study conducted by Wanda Williams in 1995 investigated parent-child relationships in correlation with academic achievement (Williams 3). The results from this survey showed that the main contribution to a student’s success is family life and parent involvement (14). A few other factors that people sometimes do not think of may include nutrition, diet, and physical activity. According to Webster’s dictionary, nutrition most clearly means, â€Å"The act of nourishing or being nourished. The term diet may include definitions that of, â€Å"Food and drink regularly provided or consumed,† or, â€Å"Habitual nourishment,† and the term physical fitness (or exercise) is known as, â€Å"Bodily exertion for the sake of developing and maintaining physical fitness. † Some may argue that poor academic performance could in turn lead to poor habits in health; that the stress and pressure placed on young people causes them to neglect their fitness and well-being. On the contrast, maybe this theory is completely opposite.In this paper I will attempt to answer the question: does nutrition and fitness have an effect on a student’s academic performance, and, if so, how? From breakfast consumption and sports involvement to the amount of television watched and family involvement, everything plays a vital role in a student’s success. Even things that seem so minor can have a profound impact on the long-term accomplishments in young people’s lives. Healthy habits in nutrition, diet, and fitness have a positive impact on a student’s academic performance.Skipped meals are the largest cause of unhealthy habits in a student’s academic career, but this can be prevented by providing more food options for students and also by not having available classes during meal hours. Conducted at the infancy of this subject was an experiment by Toni Burkhalter and Charles Hillman. This research began because these two were interested and shocked by the consistently increasing BMI (body mass index) in children and adolescents across every demographic in the United States (Burkhalter 201). Their goal was to target energy intake in comparison with scholastic performance.Burkhalter and Hillman defined energy intake as nutrient intake, body mass, and physical activity. Through research they discovered and confirmed that nutrition substantially influences both the development and health of brain structure and function (204). Providing the proper building blocks for the brain to create and maintain connections is critical for improved cognition (mental processes) and academic performance. Their investigation verified that an increase of physical activity participation leads to an increase in cognitive health and function (206).Many people hear the cliche lectures about eating healthy, maintaining a stable diet, and practicing regular exercise. But most do not realize that these habits play a crucial role in brain functioning. The brain intakes and retains the most information in a person’s adolescent years, so it is vital to create a prime environment in your body for learning. There are some who relate academic performance to breakfast habits. Throughout our lives we hear doctors, teachers, and parents stress that breakfast is the most important meal of the day.People will argue that it starts one’s day, gets one’s metabo lism going, and provides the nutrition necessary for a healthy day and lifestyle. It has been proven that children require optimal nutrient intake to meet the basic demands of growth and development. Gail Rampersaud, M. S. , and Mark Pereira, Ph. D. , attempted to find supporting evidence of this claim, and conducted a study in 2005. They found that over 59% of students skip breakfast more than three times a week, and that as a student’s age increased, so did their habit of skipping breakfast (Rampersaud 745).After surveying various age groups, they compared breakfast eating habits to their overall academic performance. Next, the students were given a variety of standardized and customized tests (745). The results showed that breakfast eaters not only had a higher average on the assessments, but also had better school attendance and less tardies (751). This study was difficult because people have a very hazy and different standard and definition of â€Å"breakfast. † S ome view it as a glass of milk, some view it as an apple, others see it as a bowl of cereal, and some have a feast consisting of bacon, eggs, hash browns, ham, and toast in their mind.Either way, it was determined to be anything you intake as nutrition at the beginning of your day. There is substantial evidence that breakfast consumption is associated with health and wellbeing of children and adolescents, and these benefits apply to a wider age range, as well as other demographic and socioeconomic groups. There is also a great deal of evidence that breakfast eaters have overall healthier lifestyles and better health (diet and exercise) habits. Some claim that students should be able to schedule and maintain their own nutritional habits.But others, like Cathy Estes, agree that this lifestyle needs to be a co-effort between students, parents, and teachers. She says that, â€Å"Student responsibility doesn't just happen. Teachers and parents must expect it, model it and nurture it. An optimal educational outcome depends on collaboration between teachers, parents and students (Estes 1). † It needs to be something that both parties view as a necessary goal. Student’s can have good intentions, but faculty and staff at the school’s need to support these intentions.Arranging more suitable class times and a better variety of nutritional foods can easily do this. Another study conducted by Florence, MD sought to target not just the nutrition aspect, but the overall diet quality and academic performance correlation (Florence 209). The study concluded the following results: Students with decreased overall diet quality were significantly more likely to perform poorly on the assessment. Girls performed better than boys as did children from socioeconomically advantaged families. Children attending better schools and living in wealthy neighborhoods also performed better.Conclusions: These findings demonstrate an association between diet quality and academ ic performance and identify specific dietary factors that contribute to this association. Additionally, this research supports the broader implementation and investment in effective school nutrition programs that have the potential to improve student access to healthy food choices, diet quality, academic performance, and, over the long term, health (Florence 209). According to the previous study performed by Rampersaud, breakfast plays a vital role in diet quality.This is another important aspect for dedicated times for eating. Breakfast is not going to be a high priority for a student if his/her class falls in that time frame. Not only do both of the studies support each other, but they also tie in other aspects that could affect academic performance, like family life. This study tries to emphasize that the term â€Å"academic achievement† isn’t measured by tests alone, but also by attendance, attentiveness, and involvement (212). They also stated that fruit and veget able intake had a significant impact on memory and overall learning (213).Finally, the study’s results showed that â€Å"undernourished males were twice as likely to fail an assessment as undernourished females. † A sub question that may be necessary to add the research question is this: do gender differences have an affect an effect on academic performance? Sayid Ghazvini answers this question with his research. He stated that his primary goal was to â€Å"Find gender differences in factors affecting academic performance of high school students (Ghazvini 1041). † He had many different aspects involving â€Å"academic performance. While his results showed no significant difference in the overall achievement of the students, there were differences in the many features connected with his concept of academic performance (1043): Results show the existence of gender difference in variables under consideration, with girls showing internal locus of control, using atti tude, motivation, time management, anxiety, and self-testing strategies more extensively, and getting better marks in Literature. With boys using concentration, information processing and selecting main ideas strategies more, and getting better marks in mathematics (1043).As we see, male and females seem to have the same overall results. This gender factor probably does not have a significant impact on the nutrition and fitness study, but can be noted when taking a closer look at the details that combine to form out term â€Å"academic achievement/performance. † Some critics say that student’s should be held solely responsible for their extracurricular activities, including eating, watching television, exercising, and studying. But studies show that when a person is considered an adult, their brain is still developing.They still need instruction and guidance in different aspects of their life. Researcher, Craig Bennett, stated that, â€Å"Humans don’t really de velop the ability to handle multiple pieces of information at once until about the ages of 16 or 17. The brain of an 18-year-old college freshman is still far from resembling the brain of someone in their mid-twenties (Than 2). † Healthy habits don’t just come naturally, they take time and dedication to develop and maintain. Another study done by Jane Edwards attempted to target physical activity in relation to academic performance (Edwards 65).This experiment was conducted on sixth graders in a Midwest City school district. It was her goal to compare physical activity, overall fitness, and body mass index of 800 students. Next she matched these results with standardized test scores. To measure physical activity and fitness, Edwards set up a variety of physical tasks (curl ups, pushups, mile run) and included the student’s weight and height. In the end, she found that the healthier, more physically fit students performed better on their standardized tests.Edwards , like Rampersaud and Florence, also included other variables in her study. She pointed out the significance of breakfast consumption as well. Also, she brought in other lifestyle habits like the amount of television watched and extracurricular activity involvement. This amount of exercise is vital to a student’s healthy lifestyle. Exercise should become a requirement at schools and colleges. It is proven to affect their academic performance, so why shouldn’t academic grading also require some sort of workout in a student’s daily routine?A journal published by Taras H, a professor at the University of California, noted the association between nutrition and a student’s performance at school (Taras 200). Taras broke down the term nutrition into four sub-categories: food insufficiency, iron deficiency and supplementation, deficiency and supplementation of micronutrients, and the importance of breakfast (201). Research shows that children with iron deficienci es are at a disadvantage academically. Their cognitive performance improved with iron therapy. Cognitive performance is a student’s ability to obtain and store knowledge.Again, breakfast consumption demonstrates to be a vital aspect of a young person’s health. A healthy lifestyle not only consists of a certain number of meals a day, but also various types of nourishment and physical activity. It was also found that food insufficiency is a serious issue that affects a child’s ability to learn. Finally, after surveying and undernourished population, a breakfast program was initiated, and analysis showed that academic performance and cognitive functioning significantly increased. As it has been proven through countless studies, many things contribute to academic achievement.But the main issue that related to student’s health is skipped meals and lack of exercise. To many, these seem like easy to target problems. But why is the problem consistently worsening? Because no one is taking initiative to find solutions. The most doable and reasonable solution is to incorporate a greater variety of food options (in the healthier realm) for students/adolescents, not schedule classes or other activities during meal hours, and have a mandatory tentative exercise schedule as part of a student’s academic career. Words Cited Burkhalter, Toni M. , and Charles H.Hillman. â€Å"A Narrative Review of Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity to Cognition and Scholastic Performance across the Human Lifespan. † Advances in Nutrition 2. 2 (2011): 201-06. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. Edwards, Jane U. â€Å"Relationship of Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors and Fitness Measures to Academic Performance for Sixth Graders in a Midwest City School District. † Journal of School Health 81. 2 (2011): 65-69. SPORTDiscus. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. Eliasson, Arne H. â€Å"Early to Bed, Early to Rise! Sleep Habits and Academic Performance in College Students . † Sleep and Breathing 14. (2009): 71-75. ScienceDirect. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. Estes, Cathy. â€Å"Student Responsibility Needs to Be  nurtured. † LasVegasSun. com. 8 Apr. 2009. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. ;http://www. lasvegassun. com/news/2009/apr/08/student-responsibility-needs-be-nurtured/;. Florence, M. D. â€Å"Diet Quality and Academic Performance. † Journal of School Health 78. 4 (2008): 209-215. CINAHL. Web. 19 Mar. 2012. Ghazyini, Sayid D. â€Å"Gender Differences in Factors Affecting Academic Performance of High School Students. † 3rd World Conference on Educational Sciences 15. 3 (2011): 1040-045. ScienceDirect.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

African Rock Python Essay

The African rock python. It is Domain: Eukarya. Domain is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms, higher than a kingdom. The African rock python falls under Eukarya because it is a multicellular organism composed of eukaryotic cells. It is Kingdom: Anamalia. Kingdom is the second highest rank. It falls under Anamalia for obvious reasons. It is Phylum: Chordata. Phylum is the primary division of the plant or animal kingdom. It is Class: Reptilia. Class is a group of related plants or animals, in the general classification of plants and animals. The African rock python falls under Reptilia because it has a characteristic of being cold-blooded. It is Order: Squamata. Order is a taxonomic rank used in classifying organisms, generally below the class, and comprised of families sharing a set of similar nature or characteristics. The African rock python shed their skin periodically and have very flexible jaws, which are characteristics of Squamata. It is Family: Pythonidae. Organisms belonging to the same family would have evolved from the same ancestors and share relatively common characteristics. The Pythonidae family is a family of non-venomous snakes who are powerful constrictors that wrap around their prey to kill it. This family includes the African rock python. It’s Genus: Python. In binomial nomenclature, the genus is used as the first word of a scientific name. It’s Species: Python sebae. Species is the second part of the name is the binomial nomenclature. The name Python Sebae was derived from the Greek mythology, which refers to a huge serpent. The largest snake in Africa and the third largest snake in the world, the African rock python, have long bulky bodies. Snakes are considered vertebrates because they have a backbone, a closed circulatory system, where the heart and blood vessels are continuously contracting. The blood never leaves the blood vessels. The outer layer of the epidermis is thick and lacks glands. It is characterized by keratin scales. Ranging anywhere from an average size of 18 to 20 feet long, but can grow up to 28 feet long! The females are larger than the males and can weigh almost 300lbs. However the size may vary according to their natural habitat. It is amazing to note that in areas where there is a higher population, the size of the African rock python has been smaller in size, as compared to areas where human habitat is less; the African Rock Python snake is much bigger in ize. African Rock Pythons are often tan with brown spots that have black outlines. This helps them camouflage in the environment, and gives them an advantage to hunt their prey or hide from potential predators. This is considered cryptic camouflage. A V-shape noticeably marks the face. This python is non-venomous, and has teeth curved inward to help pull in prey when eating. Like all pythons, the scales of the African rock python are small and smooth, and those nearby the lips control heat-sensitive pits, which are used to distinguish warm-blooded prey, even in the dark. Pythons also possess two functioning lungs, unlike more â€Å"advanced† snakes which have only one, and also have small, visible pelvic spurs, believed to be the remnants of hind limbs. It is said that snakes are evolved from lizards that burrowed in tunnels or in water, and the use of hind legs made it harder for them to burrow. Over time there legs started to grow shorter and eventually becoming useless, leaving behind what is now known as there spurs, located right before the anus. The rate of this evolution occurred at a slow constant pace over millions of years. This evidence of evolution would be considered phylogeny, the evolutionary relationship among species. African rock pythons reside in sub-Saharan Africa, but prefer evergreen forests or moist, open savannahs. You will always most likely find an African rock python associated with water and often are found near rivers and lakes. The African rock python has recently been found on the loose in Florida. Not many know how the massive snake happened to come about in Florida. Many believe they were released purposely, because the owner or breeder was ill-equipped for the intensity of this particular snake. A frightening factor has arisen since the African rock python has inhabited the south Florida territory. The Burmese python has already established foothold in the Everglades. The fear of a new â€Å"Super Snake† breed arising if the Burmese and African rock python were to mate, strikes fear that a hybrid python may be on the rise in the Everglades. Knowing that the African rock is bigger and more aggressive than the Burmese python which is about 17 feet long, the â€Å"super snake† would surpass that length. It would not only hamper the ecosystem but would also be dangerous for families with small children. The python hunts by smelling food with its tongue, flicking it up and down. Although the African rock python are already powerful on land, this brainy serpent employs an even more impressive tactic underwater. Ever adaptable, the pythons that reside near water thrive on fish. Much older snakes can use the water to its advantage and hunt greater prey. They can remain under water and every 30 minutes come up to take a discrete breath. It uses heat-sensing organs, called photoreceptors to detect warm-blooded prey. Because the African rock python is non-venomous it squeezes its food. Every time the prey exhales, the python constricts a little more, so that inhalation becomes increasingly difficult. Death is caused mostly by cardiac arrest rather than myths or urban legends articulating that their prey was crushed to death. African rock pythons, as well as every python, are carnivores. Their diet consists of large rodents, monkeys, antelopes, crocodiles, dogs, goats, and poultry . They have strong acids inside their stomach which helps them to digest their food. It is rare of the African rock python hunting for humans. After eating a large animal, the python needs no food for a long time, and may rest for weeks. In this engorged state, it is most vulnerable to attack by predators. In most cases if the snake feels threatened it will regurgitate the food and escape to shelter. African Rock Python becomes sexually active as early as 3-5 years old and reproduce during the spring. The female snake lets out a pheromone which attracts the male snake to mate. During the breeding season both the sexes fast and the female continues the fast till the eggs are hatched. African rock pythons fall under the subclass: protheria. They are oviparous, meaning they reproduce by laying eggs, which hatch outside the mother’s body. Surprisingly the python shows distinct mother instincts by coiling around the eggs, protecting them from predators, and incubating the eggs to help with development until they hatch, which is about 90 days. Which makes this species rather interesting as parenting is quite a foreign concept to reptiles. Hatchlings are between 18–24 inches in length, and have temper when born. Some are known to strike when hatching. They are nearly identical to adults, except with more distinguishing colors. African Rock Python can live up to 12 years in wild however they can live up to 30 years in captivity. It is said that the African rock python is does not run the risk of extinction, but is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). There is a high demand for the python’s skin and meat in the market, mostly to make leather, belts and purses. Exporting of these exotic animals is known to be illegal. Some of the African rock python’s habitats are also known to be under threat due to destruction for the oil industry. In some cases the African rock python might be a prey to hyenas or the African wild dogs during their digestion period, but aside from humans, adult African rock pythons have very few natural predators due to their large size. For the reason that these species can reach significant sizes, their constricting power must be respected. Most cases found of African rock pythons swallowing a crocodile whole, later to be found that the crocodile was not digested and penetrated the skin of the python. Although this species can easily kill an adult, there are only a few cases in which the victim, in most cases a child, was actually consumed. Rare cases have been reported of an African rock python consuming a 10 year old boy, or attempting to eat a child. In another case a 13 year old was swallowed, but the python was forced to regurgitate the body. The African rock python began being known as â€Å"Man-eating snake†. This factor of their strength, as well as size, separates this python from most other snakes. Maybe even all reptiles for that matter. African rock pythons have been known to go after monitor lizards, which are known to very aggressive and strong. This is one reason why African rock pythons should not be considered a first pet for someone who wants to own a snake. People who are ill-equipped owners or breeders do not know what to expect and end up getting ahead of themselves, and can no longer handle a beast that they just irresponsibly release them, no knowing what their actions have lead to. The African rock python has many fascinating features, from the way they hunt, the way they eat, live, breed, how big of an importance they to the environment not only around animals but humans as well. It’s amazing at how big they can get and to know exactly how powerful they can be. The types of animals they can bring down are twice their size. Their lifestyle captures my attention. Besides the fact, that I am attracted to exotic pets, I own a Royal python, commonly known as a Ball python. Similar to the African rock python, the ball python is considered more docile and smaller in length and hopefully size in the future, but it is still a dangerous animal and should not be handled lightly. This research paper has added to my knowledge of the African rock python as well as other common snakes. I have learned that what may seem to be a harmless hatchling at birth, can grow into an overgrown, powerful killing machine. This is also known as fatal attraction. I know that if I wanted to know release my ball python into the wild I would know how to do it properly. The choice of owning a python, or any snake for that matter , is a choice that needs to be taken seriously, these animals require attention, a stable and healthy living environment, and patience. You never know what to expect from them or when to expect something from them.

Monday, July 29, 2019

The Values Of Philosophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Values Of Philosophy - Essay Example paper will analyze the value of Philosophy in several areas such as professional setting, educational world as well as in terms of critical thinking. If one takes a look at the way students study Philosophy, one can not help noticing that this discipline is great when it comes to structuring one’s mind and understanding of the world (Kelly). Indeed, while many think that a philosophy major provides a person with nothing, but a set of abstract knowledge about vague concepts, in reality it prepares one to a better understanding of such crucial areas of life as law, medicine, business or computer science. In other words, if one studies Philosophy, one will be able to analyze the above mentioned sciences easier compared to an ordinary person because of the helpful background that this disciple has provided one with. Another point that should be mentioned is that studying Philosophy also teaches a person how to express oneself in writing properly (Kelly). Indeed, nowadays it may be crucial to write a specific document in manner that would convey a particular message in a concise and clear manner making sure that the recipient will understand everything what the sender wanted to express. With the help of various tools, Philosophy helps a person to learn how to structure writing properly, avoiding simple mistakes that distort the meaning. What is why important is that Philosophy become irreplaceable when it comes to the issue of Business ethics. Indeed, if it had not been for this discipline, people could hardly understand what it is and the entire concept would not have emerged (Marcoux). At the present moment, the idea of Business ethic guides every business and it is virtually impossible to imagine a company that would not pay attention to it. Philosophy provides a person with a necessary set of concepts that make the idea in question understandable and applicable to a concrete situation. Moreover, Philosophy is often engaged when it comes to designing Codes of

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Thelma & Louise Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Thelma & Louise - Research Paper Example She works as a waitress and has a boyfriend named Jimmy. On the other hand, Thelma is a housewife under the dominion of her husband. Despite their differences, the audience learns that they have organized a weekend road trip, but Thelma has to seek permission from her dominant husband. In the first scene of the film, the director depicts two different women in kitchens (Lanouette 2). Louise is in a commercial kitchen that appears huge and large with multiple processes going on. Thelma appears in her household kitchen, but that depicts a high level of disorganization. In addition, the kitchen appears highly messy. Moreover, the director depicts Louise dressed in white while Thelma wears a loosely hanging bathrobe. The director uses these different illustrations to introduce the evident differences between the women at the onset of the film. The conversation between Thelma and her husband Dareel serves to highlight to the audience that she is a voiceless housewife, having to bear with the suppressive nature of her husband. Thelma’s tone of addressing her husband reflects her passive nature since she struggles to impress her husband through her tone and choice of words. She struggles to find the right words to seek his permission, but she fails, and decides to leave for the trip without his consent. On the night prior to the trip, the director depicts the women packing, but in different ways. Louise is seen packing in an organized manner, having clear ideas on the items that she needs to pack. Louise’s apartment exhibits effective lighting and multiple mirrors. On the other hand, Thelma exhibits disorganization in the way she packs, clustering clothes, and items into her bag. In this scene, the director also emphasizes on the spatial opposition that is evident in the entire film. The effective use of costumes and props in the film serves to introduce the spatial opposition (Pramaggiore and Wallis 94). When the two women start their trip, they begin t o share the same space in the car. Previously, they had not shared any space, and their attitudes were different. At the onset of their trip, they exhibit different attributes. Louise is in control of her life, and makes decisions that define her moves(Lanouette 4). Thelma has just made the first defining decision of embarking on the trip without her husband’s consent. Since spatial opposition is minimal in the shared car, and the scenes that follow depict the many changes that occur between the spatial settings of the women. Thelma exhibits an emerging desire to make her personal decisions when she suggests that they stop at Silver Bullet, a club where the passive Thelma indulges in a flirty dance with a stranger Harlan. The club space defined by music, waitresses, and revelry serves to highlight a percentage of the transformation that occurs in Thelma. As the plot progresses, she seems to be pursuing more freedom. At the club, Harlan decides to take advantage of Thelma, and drags her to the parking where he intends to rape her. The lighting at the parking appears dim suggesting to the audience that something undesirable was about to happen(Pramaggiore and Wallis 95). The director also ensures a level of tension that ensues before Louise gets to the parking lot where the ordeal is transpiring. The vulnerability of Thelma is evident from her

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Economics Bachelor Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Economics Bachelor - Essay Example Before this incident, Japan has been trying to position itself as a global leader of environmental peace-maker rhetorically. But if Japan's own contribution to its domestic environmental impacts, we find out that there are at least five categories or key areas where Japan excels with a lot of scopes to be desired for in the context of environmental green peace. These five major areas are the promotion of high technology, deforestation, foreign direct investment, official development assistance and over-fishing. In the context of over-fishing the prime concern of the world right now is the problem of whaling. In Eco Pre Meeting, Issue 1, it has been reported that the Japanese government has thrown down the gauntlet to the IWC by proposing to expand its so-called "scientific" whaling. Next in line for slaughter are sperm whales, the huge and endangered species immortalized by Melville in Moby Dick, and Bryde's whales. This is on top of the more 500 mink whales they kill annually. Although commercial whaling was banned by the Commission in 1986, Japan has killed mink whales in the Antarctic since 1987 and in the North Pacific since 1994. Under a loophole in the IWC Convention, countries need only inform the Commission of their plans to kill whales for scientific purposes. The IWC Scientific Committee has regularly declared that Japan's proposed research provides little or no information that would contribute to the proper management of whale populations. And the full Commission has repeatedly urged Japan to refrain from granting themselves research permits for such whaling. Nevertheless, Japan has continued to kill whales and sell the meat commercially. Yet the killing goes on. More recently, (May 11, 2006) Japan announced that "Japan has announced a new marketing push for its most unwanted export: whale meat. A new company, with a sales target of 1000 tonnes per year, started works a few days ago. But finding someone, anyone, to buy it will be a challenge. Domestic demand is at a historic low. Japan's stockpile of frozen whale meat was a record 4800 tones last August, unofficial reports say. And that was before the most recent season when more than 850 mink whales, each weighing about 10 tones, were caught in the Southern Ocean. The decision by Japan's whale research body, the Institute of Cetacean Research, to set up a company to find new markets comes a month after the country's second-largest seafood company, Nissui, said that it would abandon its whale meat canning business." (Cameron, 3) But despite all these Japan keeps on the trade of whale killing under disguise of scientific operations. Japan says that it does not have a commercial whaling program and that what is sold at Tokyo's famous fish market is a sensible use of the byproduct of scientific research into whale biology and migration. Opponents say that killing whales for research is unnecessary and that Japan is using a loophole to circumvent a 1986 moratorium on commercial whaling. (Cameron, 3) A lot of organizations from all over the world from countries like Canada and Australia are working vigorously to put an end to this trade by boycotting Japanese product and Japanese companies like Mitsubishi. Japan continues to kill whales under the name of "research". However, it is not really research. Half the whale meat sold

Friday, July 26, 2019

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS - Article Example The article was written by a professor who is part of the Center for Creative Leadership and co-author of books about leadership and cultural intelligence. I find the article very practical and informative since the writer is indeed right on her observation how international business is conducted nowadays. Moreover, she pointed out the necessity for learning cultural agility since there are many leaders appointed to manage overseas operations. However, even if a leader has an MBA and years of experience is not a guarantee that the person can successfully handle a very diverse environment. According to the writer â€Å"When leaders operate with culturally limited perspectives, the result is missed opportunities, poor performance, frail relationships and weak teams. In contrast, leaders who are culturally agile are able to respond to and perform well in varied and unfamiliar cultural contexts. They successfully engage a diversity of perspectives, learn new processes and All over the world, there are many global leaders who typically originated from the west. These CEOs or COOs are often assigned overseas to take care of global operations since the business has expanded. In fact, this situation is presently happening in China were American managers set-up their business operations carrying with them western orientation in running a business. For example, an executive from the U.S. may find himself entangled in complicated situations if he is assigned in China. A large number of American businessmen have undergone complicated situations in China since the government has a peculiar way of governing foreign businesses. Add to that is cultural differences in terms of language and how different Chinese business etiquettes are. Technology was cited in an article as an ally in â€Å"crafting strategies for future leaders† ( Brosseau, Nov 2, 2010) but I believe that leadership

Criminology Compare and contrast two methods of policing Essay

Criminology Compare and contrast two methods of policing - Essay Example This essay is going to draw clear comparison between these two types of policing by giving out the major similarities and differences between the two. First, the essay will discuss the two policing strategies in order to give a clear understanding about each one of them, before highlighting the key differences and the similarities. Community policing is defined as the collaboration between the community and the police officers in identifying and controlling crimes and other forms of disorders in the society. It is also referred to as community-oriented policing in some countries. Under community policing, the role of the police officers is not only to apprehend the bad elements in the society, but rather remain committed in serving the public in all aspects. Police are required to develop ties with members of the public, an element that enables them to work closely with the people they are protecting. Community policing is said to comprise of two major components namely the community partnership and the element of problem solving. This means that police officers are expected to build good relationships with members of the public as one of the ways of making crime detection easy. This also ensures that the resources meant for providing security to the public are effectively utilized in giving the public their m ost fundamental right; right to security. There are numerous compelling reasons that have made the security departments of most countries to adopt this type of policing. Most of these reasons are grounded on the history of policing, various researches that have been conducted in the security departments, the changing characteristics of crime, the shifting nature of communities as well as the rampant growth of disorders. Crime has been on a regular change for the past few decades especially in the western countries, where by new

Thursday, July 25, 2019

History Lectures Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

History Lectures - Essay Example Islamic Beginnings In its initial years, Islam has been considered a nomadic culture until it found a home in the Arab territories. Islam’s most famous prophet is someone you most likely have heard of--Muhammad or Mohammed. Muhammad was known to have united the Muslim religion and culture. He is considered their prophet because it is said that the teachings of Allah were revealed to him by an angel. These teachings are now present in the Muslim bible called the Qur’an (Khanbagi, 2006). When Muhammad, Islam’s holy man, passed away, various problems of succession arose. The succeeding years of the Muslim civilization brought on more conquered lands. One after another, we have seen other cultures and territories fall to the Muslims, including the Byzantines, Syria, Persia, Egypt, North Africa, and Spain. But, as the Muslims were conquering these territories, the fighting within their group got worse. Many of us have heard about Islam through the latest media coverag e; and if so, you may have heard of the two infamous groups, the Sunis and the Shiites. These two groups were borne out of the infighting Muslims, due to differing ideas on governance. The Shiites followed Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law, and the Sunis followed the Ummayads, who were the first Muslim dynasty to rule the Arab Kingdom (Jelen & Wilcox, 2002). Islam’s Golden Years Of course, during the older rule of Islam, it was not all about fighting. There was a golden period; a time when the Arabic, Byzantine, Persian, and Indian cultures were integrated with one another. They refer to it as a golden age because learning reached its peak through Muslim associations with the Greeks and the Byzantines. The interplay became more than what one would expect—a predatory or conqueror-slave type of interaction. The relationship became as simple as a teacher and a student (Kreis, 2006). As the conquered groups learned about Islam, Islam learned from the conquered. Knowledge b ecame alive and in the process, science and philosophy was also preserved. Allah taught these Muslims to seek out knowledge and truth and to protect it (Kreis, 2006). And, this is what they did as they allowed knowledge to become a major part of their life and their daily activities. African Beginnings Most of the southern part of the African continent has been occupied by tribes known as Khoisan (Hupston, 2009). The Khoisan language is characterized by clicking sounds, very similar to that of the Bushman. From the Khoisan tribes, more divisions are later seen: the San (Bushmen) and the KhoiKhoi or Hottentots (History World, n.d). The Pygmies, which includes the Bambuti, Batwa, Bayaka and Bagyelil divisions are scattered over a huge area in central and western Africa, to include the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Congo (Brazzaville), Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic, Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda (The Africa Guide, 1996). The Pygmies were known to occupy the tropical fore sts of central Africa, but it was the Negroes which dominated sub-Saharan Africa. Primeval Tribes The Negroes, were an African tribe who found their home in the so-called Negro systems, in western and central Sudan, Upper Guinea, and the Upper Nile regions. They spoke the Bantu language, a language which dominated much of Africa in later years. It is composed of about 500

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Business Strategy & Strategic Management Assignment

Business Strategy & Strategic Management - Assignment Example The Blue Ocean’s strategic concept is seen to attempt to essentially represent all the various potential markets that are seen to as yet not exist and must therefore be created. The blue Ocean Strategy was first proposed by INSEAD’s professors Kim and Mauborgne in the year 2005 (Uden, et al. 2013).As proposed by Kim and Mauborgne, the Blue Ocean Strategy fundamentally suggests that companies should attempt to create new demand across various uncontested market spaces with the sole objective of attempting to avoid competition. In line with the Blue Ocean Strategy, companies are required to ensure that they break down the traditional wall used in product definition, carefully rethink and re-strategize on exactly how their service or product will eventually be positioned in the market and eventually develop a series of new products as a result of their endeavors to ensure that they always attempt to think outside the box (Wong, 2010). According to Todd and Bessant (2011), as a result of the blue ocean strategic concept, it is normal for new markets to be created due to the challenging of the various boundaries that are seen to exist between different markets and industries, however, there at times happens to be whole new industries created as exemplified by those that in recent years have been seen to have been spawned by the internet. As such, it is evidently clear that both new entrants and incumbents play a crucial role in the formation of these new markets (Tidd and Bessant, 2011). Professor’s Kim and Mauborgne distinguish the Blue Ocean Strategies by attempting to try and compare them to the more traditional form of thinking which are seen to constitute of the Red Ocean Strategies (Ziesak, 2009). As opposed to the Red Ocean strategy of developing new products that compete in the currently existing market space, companies should ensure that they develop new products that have been positioned in uncontested market spaces which is in line wi th the Blue Ocean strategy. The Blue Ocean strategy also aims to try and make the competition irrelevant as opposed to attempting to beat this same competition as is commonly seen in a Red Ocean strategy (Siegemund, 2008). While the Red Ocean strategy attempt to try and fight for a share of the existing customers and market segment, the Blue Ocean strategy as proposed by Professors Kim and Mauborgn

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Speech class assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Speech class assignment - Essay Example It delves deeper and in specific; this is as opposed to the general purpose of a given speech. Sproule (574) states that it enlivens the general purpose of the speech, where it covers aspects such as what the audience is being enlightened on. This situation is so, especially if the general theme of the speech aligns with informing the audience. It may also cover what the audience is being persuaded to do in the case the general purpose of the speech lies under the theme of persuasion. In listening to this speech, there are a numerous of points and emphases noted. Among them are the emphases of the fact that Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson was riding only two cars behind his boss when President J. F. Kennedy was shot. There is another emphasis, which states that barely 24 hours had passed before V.P Johnson ascended to the Presidency of the Unites States of America. The phrase ‘ladies and gentlemen’ are said in an emphasizing manner, where the lecturer introduces the issues to do with the ratification of the 25th amendment that deals with the succession of a president. Finally, there is an emphasis on the point that article 25 of the Constitution was vague thereby giving room to misinterpretations and confusions. Listening to speech four without the visual element, it is almost impossible to note the areas being emphasized by the speaker. The tone is flat without any poses and variations. As such, the speaker appears to be speaking on one subject. The tonal variation, which should come with the comparison of various aspects of the speech, remains lacking. The emphasis that should be placed on the various types of artwork, specifically the impressionistic versus the 18th-century artwork. On the mention of the example of an impressionistic painting, the speaker does not change his tone. The mention of the painter is also done in a flat tone. Finally, the changes in subjects are also done without much consideration of the tonal

Monday, July 22, 2019

Tibmer Jack Essay Example for Free

Tibmer Jack Essay Timberjack was the world’s leading manufacturer of heavy equipment for the professional logger, with an overall market share of 25%. In 1995, Timberjack had 1,600 employees, generated sales of 627 MM USD and a net profit of 88 MM USD. Industry Background In the past the forests were cut manually using the chain saws, and the cut logs were taken out of the forest using horses. The logs were cut as per the requirements manually. But in the twentieth century this started transitioning, and in 1960-1990s there was surge in the use of machinery in forest cutting, loading etc. Timberjack, Blount, Caterpillar, John Deere, and Valmet were the companies providing machinery for cutting forests. Timberjack was the company catering to the 25% of the market share. Product Offering As the old manual chain saw methods for cutting trees were disappearing, feller bunchers, skidders, delimbers and log loaders were used instead. Timberjack provided a variety of heavy equipment that served the new method of cutting trees. The price of these equipment was well attached to pulp and lumber prices which in turn are highly dependent on the on the overall strength of the economy Timberjack follows a series of steps to select and decide its future manufacturing software package. The process is straightforward, which goes through DFP, vendor list, narrow down vendor list, site visit and implementation consulting for the final two vendors. Basically, Timberjack is taking one step after another throughout the processes. While it might not be a perfectly precise analogy of system development life cycle, it does share characteristics with the traditional waterfall model of SDLC (system development life cycle). A typical process of traditional SDLC is usually comprised of the following steps: 1. Project planning, feasibility study 2. Systems analysis, requirements definition 3. Systems design 4. Implementation 5. Integration and testing 6. Acceptance, installation, deployment 7. Maintenance In Timberjacks case, the life cycle starts with the decision from headquarter that a unified software package will be implemented for the whole organization, even for distributed locations. During this phase, the organization identified its current short coming of the existing solution and the necessity to move to a new system, as well as cost-benefit implications and a rough schedule. A decision of ;to build or to buy; has also been reached, which is to buy. During the second phase of the SDLC, there are various types of implementation model. According to Timberjack, it seems that it is following a waterfall model which characterizes with a prolonged need analysis phase. Once a whole list of function requirement is made, it is hardly changed later on. As a matter of fact, Timberjack devoted major time and investment into this phase. The RFP spanned nearly as long as four months and cost 75,000 USD. Although the RFP was treated as valuable outcome, the effort was less appreciated by the Sweden operations because they were in need of a quick replacement of their current software system. The following steps of SDLC, including system design, implementation and etc will depend on which vendor Timberjack eventually selected. Therefore, again, Timberjack took the time evaluated and investigated extensively. Timberjack considered several key metrics that were: cost, time of development and deployment, flexibility of customization and etc. Using the criteria, Timberjack was able to narrow down the vendor list to two bidders. With further review and consideration, Timberjack would finally be able to locked down one vendor that suited best to their situation.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

A Country Political Instability Economics Essay

A Country Political Instability Economics Essay As we know that, a country political instability or stability is an important issue to foreign invest. India has been instable politically in the past but it is a slight politically stable in these years. Therefore, our company is investing to the India capital market. There two important political factors that our company need pay attention is employee law and taxation. Furthermore, the  Minimum Wages Act, 1948  provides for implementation of minimum wages in respect of arranged employments in India. From year 2011, the National Floor Level of Minimum Wage has been greater than before from rupee 80 to rupee 115 per day. Besides that, according to Factories Act, 1948, all manufacturing that is more than 10 employee and carrying manufacturing activities meaning of Factory. Our company is manufacturing cooking oil business in India, and the worker is more than 10 people, so, our company have to supplies for the health, safety, welfare, working hours and leave of workers in factorie s. The second political factor taxation that need to coverage is corporate tax. According to the income tax Act, 1961 provides the specific statutes for other taxes. There are two type of corporate tax such domestic company and foreign company. Our company is foreign company, therefore we need to pay 42.23% (40% plus surcharge of 2.5% and education cess of 3%) taxable income exceeds INR 10miilion to the India government. It will affect our company by reducing profit due to payment corporate tax to India government. Besides that, Malaysia and India agree to make a Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (Miceca). The MICECA is a comprehensive Agreement between Malaysia and India that covering Investment, Economic Cooperation, Trade in Services and Trade in Goods. Therefore, our company can across trade in services, goods (cooking oil) and investments that principal to progressive initial of markets by both India and Malaysia.   Moreover, these market access opportunities are estimated to translate into more freedom movement of investment, professionals, goods and services between the two countries. In addition, MICECA will also provide for strategic partnerships between Malaysian and Indian businesses, such as joint ventures in services sectors by healthcare, construction, and franchising. Economic Analysis Economic is important issue that influenced by area unique to economy and comprised by economy or directly influenced by economy, areas such as exchange rates, purchase power (GDP), inflation rate, and interest rate. From the chart shown that exchange rate between Malaysia and India are 17.82985. So, 100 Malaysian Ringgit multiply exchange rate 17.82985 and we will receive 1,782.985 Indian Rupee. A strong currency is making export more difficult due to price is raise in terms of foreign currency. Changes in the  exchange rate  also effects on the economy affecting variables such as the demand for imports and exports, inflation, real GDP growth, and business  profits. Once the exchange rate between Malaysia and India is reduce, it will affect our cooking oil business reduce the profit. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in India is expanded 0.8 per cent in the second quarter of 2012 over the previous quarter. It provides an aggregate measure of changes in value of the services and goods produced by an economy. A change in GDP, whether increase or decrease, typically has an important effect on the stock market. For example, bad economy commonly receives lower profit for a business and which in turn means lower stock prices. From the graph, it is shown India economic is going recession. And it will affect our company getting low profit. The inflation rate in India was recorded at 7.81 per cent in September of 2012. With inflation, our company are paid a fixed rate of interest on loans and rental, so, we have been increase purchase power and receiving benefit from interest earnings. Besides that, inflation affect our company by aggravate higher wage demands from employees and raise costs. Besides that, interest rate is also an important issue to affect economy. Lower interest rate helps it easier for people to borrow in order to buy homes and cars. Nowadays, the interest rate in India was reported at 8.00 per cent. It means that, higher interest rates in India make our company to pay more loans in interest rate. Social-Culture Analysis Population in India Population in India increased to 1250 Million in December of 2011 from 1200 Million in December of 2010, according to a report provides by the World Bank. The population of India represents 18 per cent of the world ´s overall population which possibly means that one person in every six people on the earth is a resident of India.   Population map of India From the picture above show that, Mumbai 12,448,447, Delhi 11,007,835, Bangalore 8,426,970, Hyderabad 6,509,970, Ahmadabad 5,470,585, Chennai 4,683,087, Kolkata 4,482,679, Surat 4,461,002, Pune 3,215,431, Jaipur 3,173,350. Urban areas surrounding Cities are called Urban Agglomeration.   Age distributions in India According to CIA World Fact book, the India age structure of 0-14 years is  29.7% which is male standing for 187,450,635 and female standing for 165,415,758.The range of 15-64 years is 64.9% which is male 398,757,331 and the female is 372,719,379. And last range 65 years and over:  5.5% which is male 30,831,190 and female 33,998,613. Besides that, the total median age of India 26.5 years, male median age is 25.9 years, and female median age is 27.2 years. Religion in ` In this country India is a country where people are free to choose to believe in which religion. The majority of 82% of people are believed in religion Hindu. 14% of people is believed Muslim, 2% come from Sikh religion and 2 % come from other religion.

Ethical Issues In Photojournalism Media Essay

Ethical Issues In Photojournalism Media Essay Photojournalism is an easily neglected aspect of journalism. It is a particular form of journalism, which includes the gathering, editing, and presenting of news material for publication, in order to tell a news story. We have to ask ourselves, what does a news photograph indicate to its audience and how is it interpreted by the news audience? It was once stated by Hall (1981) that photographs are often seen as literal visual-transcriptions of the real world. Although, it can be argued that photographs can reveal the journalists bias and are sometimes not always seen to be ideologically neutral. However, this does not mean that photographs, are additionally mediated compared to other components of news discourse. News photography can raise certain ethical issues, such as taste and decency, intrusion, etc. According to Bersak (2006) With great power comes great responsibility. Responsible photo journalism means adherence to a standard of ethics. Additionaly to this, photographs are said to have close links to claims of objectivity, which I will later go onto examine in more detail. I am going to study how World Press journalists, best strike a balance between good taste and the need to convey the realities of violent conflict and the ethical issues within this. I have taken the photographs from the first, second and third place of World Press Photo gallery for the year 2010, in the category of general news. I thought that taking the photographs from this website was appropriate as they focus on delivering a narrative to the viewer. The company is also worldwide and captures pictures from all over the world, which I think is interesting as this broadens the possibility of narrative. I focused on the year 2010, as this obviously contains the most up to date photographs of violent conflict. The first photograph I have chosen to look at was awarded 1st prize singles award by Kent Klich, Sweden. The photo is taken from the Gaza photo album and shows light entering a hole in the roof of a room. The blurb next to the photo explains that the hole was caused by a tank shell in Tuffah, northern Gaza. The family that lived in the house fled during operation Cast Lead, the Israeli attack on Gaza that began at the end of December 2008. Mohammed Shuhada Ali Ahmed, 39, had gone back to fetch clothes for his children and was killed when the shell struck. The second photograph I have chosen was awarded 2nd prize singles award and was by Carlos Villalon, Chile, Redux pictures. The photo features a youth lying dead in a pool of his own blood. The blurb next to the photo explains how it was taken in Madellin, Colombia on 27th September 2009. President Alvaro Uribe has moved successfully against drug cartels in recent years, but as international traffickers left Medellin, their place has been taken by gangs fighting for control of the local drug trade. Violent deaths in the city doubled in 2009, often related to clashes between drug gangs, but sometimes involving innocent bystanders. The third photograph I have chosen was awarded 3rd prize singles award by Rino Castelnuovo, Israel, for the New York Times. The photo features a Jewish man throwing wine at a Palestinian woman. The blurb next to the photo explains how the attack was before a Purim parade in the West bank city of Hebron on 10th March 2009. Purim is an annual Jewish festival with celebrations that include feasting and drinking. Hebron is divided into two zones. In one, under Israeli security control, several hundred Jewish residents live among tens of thousands of Palestinians. Tension between the communities is expressed in acts of harassment and provocation from both sides. All three of the photographs briefly discussed above have been published whether it in a book or a newspaper, for the public eye to consume. The pictures convey an urgent global issue such as violent conflict, which is a true reflection of the world we live in today for some. It would be safe to suggest that the photos discussed, use modern photography, in a very powerful way to portray three different narratives. All of these photographs are used by their publications as a shock tactic, to make the public aware of the realities of violent conflict, whether the photos hold good taste or bad. A main concern is, although, the photographs are the realities of violent conflict for some, the photographs do raise huge ethical issues.This is due to the dissemination of controversial images, and along with this comes many unanswered questions. According to Franklin (2005) When news reporting, it is a journalists professional obligation to be ethical. Meaning basically it is a journalists own commitment to be ethical. Most journalists in Britain today are ethical STUDY 88888 Journalists follow ethical guidelines due to a number of reasons such as to cover themselves ethically, in order to avoid being sued by an organisation or person/s, not to cause damage to their reputation as journalist etc. In Britain, journalists generally tend to follow the National Union of Journalists ethical guidelines, and the first point on it states A journalist has a duty to maintain the highest professional and ethical standards. According to Bersak (2006) The ethical framework a photograph holds has evolved over time, influenced by such things as community values and it is continually developing today. Although, we do have to take into account that not all countries follow this guideline and they can vary. An example of where the journalist may not have been ethical is in the second photograph, of the youth lying dead. Is this right or wrong to show this picture, just to try and accomplish a sensational news story, and thus boosting the circulation of sales of the publication? We have to take into consideration that this youth is a son to someone, how would they feel about this photo? The fact that is has been widely published by Redux pictures (an independent commercial and editorial photo agency, used by publications) would his family have wanted that? Would the youths family have allowed the photograph to be published, to convey to the world the realities of violent conflict? Can World Press Photo justify this journalist taking this photograph? Is it in the public interest to show this photo, or could it be subjected to invasion of privacy? According to Franklin (2005) public interest is the need for information to be published to benefit society. The youth is dead, should he not be allowed privacy at this time and die without being photographed, surely the need to convey the realities of violent conflict cannot be that great. Sometimes in photo journalism, ethical guidelines are broken to represent the true horror of a subject. However, the photograph could offend others and could be the subject of bad taste. It was said by Emery and Smythe (1995) Violence and tragedy are staples of journalism. If it bleeds, it leads, is a popular, unspoken sentiment in many newsrooms. The reason for this obvious incongruity is that a majority of viewers want to see violent pictures, but through gaps in the fingers in front of their face. In an overview of this, journalists should ensure that photographs that display gruesome images (like the photograph of the youth) are really vital, in order to inform the news reader. Journalists, frequently refer to the explanation for using such gruesome photographs as a way to inform the public of the risk, which in this case would be the realities of violent conflict. Personally, I think it is in the public interest to let the public know the realities of violent conflict, however, I do not think this photo is appropriate. If the parents gave Redux permission to go ahead and publish it, I think I would be more accepting of the photo. I think the fact, he is only a youth as well has a part to play, it highlights the fact that he was more vulnerable and thus, maybe why he was attacked. Whose interest is it in to see this poor youth dead and what benefit does this bring to the public, no ones. I think there are other photographs that could have been used to convey the realities of violent conflict, which could have the same affect on the news reader. I do not believe the journalist has tried his/her best to strike a balance between good taste and the need to convey the realities of violent conflict at all. Another interesting point to make is that, although, the photographs convey the realities of violent conflict for some, the photographs hold no objectivity. This is a recurring issue that is often questioned in todays society, should the journalist hold neutrality? Quill (1996) who supports this view states I believe that the journalist should have objectivity, when reporting, they should give all sides a fair hearing. An example, whereby the photograph holds no objectivity, is the third photograph of the Jewish man throwing wine over the Palestinian women, as this is not showing a neutral point of view at all, and in fact conveys that the Jews were the ones in the wrong, the aggressors in this violent conflict, which may/may not have been the case. According to Emery and Smythe (1995) Media critics and viewers question the use of gruesome images and visual messages that perpetuate negative stereotypes of individuals from various multicultural groups. Although, Vistens (1992) argues with this and states journalists do not take sides just pictures, supporting the view that the picture does not need objectivity as it shows the true realities of violent conflict. Reporting the realities of violent conflict encapsulates many journalistic dilemmas. For me this is the most shocking photo, I think it may be because I have never seen a photograph like this before where the man is abusing a woman by throwing wine over her. I do not know whether, it has more of an affect, as it is a man throwing it over a woman. I feel a lot of the time, I am desensitised to photographs of dead people, through seeing them so often in news coverage and this is maybe why I found this image more shocking. It was quoted by Lester (1999) The media have been criticized for showing so many gruesome images that the public has hardened toward violent injustices. The concept of journalistic objectivity is problematic, and has been described as one of journalisms thorniest dilemmas, from both a conceptual and practical point of view. It nevertheless remains at the forefront of societal debate about journalisms role and in journalists own legitimisation of their profession (taken from handout). Although a post modern approach to objectivity supports the view that it is impossible and/ or irrelevant in this day and age, to show objectivity when news reporting, whether it be in photography or writing. I think it is safe to say that the journalist, who took this picture, does give a best strike a balance between good taste and the need to convey the realities of violent conflict. As although, the picture is offensive to some, I do not think it can be subjected to bad taste. The picture does not make the audience look away in horror, as the picture does of the bloody youth. It shows the approach of some Jews, towards the Palestinians. It provokes the emotions of anger and sadness in the news reader and conveys the realities of violent conflict in a powerful way without being distasteful. We have to consider that, the majority of texts concerning ethics in photo journalism concentrate on the subject matter of what could be coined as the photographic reality. In other words, whether a certain picture accurately conveys the topic or whether it misleads the news reader viewer. A journalist is said to give a faithful and comprehensive depiction of the subject at hand in his/her work according to The National Press Photographers Association (NPPA Code of Ethics). However, we have to think about what happens when the journalist is not faithful and comprehensive as it were. The matter of the fact is a journalist can set up a staged news photo and s/he could change it in the darkroom if s/he sought to, in order to enhance the photos impact. New technological equipment is so advanced in society today, that it easily allows journalists to manipulate photographs (for this instance) to convey the realities of violent conflict, which would not be ethically correct. To illustrate this point, if we take photograph one, the picture features a hole in the middle of an empty room of someones house, with a massive hole in the roof. I would like to think this photo had not been altered. Although, it could be possible that the journalist took the photo of the room, without a hole present and added it later on for affect, and the news reader would be none the wiser. Lester (1999) agrees with this viewpoint and states A camera is only as truthful as the hands that guide it. The risk to manipulating photographs, is the public starts to doubt the truthfulness of the news photographs in general, and therefore this could cause the publics view of the journalist profession to suffer, as it has done before in the past. I do not think that the photograph has been manipulated to convey the realities of violent war and conflict. Nor do I think the photograph is distasteful, when viewing the photograph at first, it was actually quite unclear to what the photograph was meant to be conveying. I think that the photograph definitely has a shock tactic, as it shows a hole was caused by a Tank shell, which is incongruous to most of us, as news readers. I think the photograph conveys the realities of war and conflict, with striking a balance between good taste. Although, the photograph is shocking and could offend some, it like photograph three, does not make you look away in horror. This photo, especially does not make me question the ethics of whether the photo should have been published or not, maybe this is because no person is actually featured in the photograph. It was said by Bersak (2006) Each publication has a set of rules, sometimes written, sometimes unwritten, that governs what that publication co nsiders to be a truthful and faithful representation of images to the public. It can be argued, that the difference among ethics and taste is continually up for discussion, particularly, with regards to violence. It was once mentioned to me that, if you would not show the photo to a child then its suitability, taste and decency was too bad and the photo should not get published. There are many models that a journalist can follow, in order to decide whether their story should be published or not, such as Wards (2009) model, who believes there is four stages a journalist can follow for ethical reasoning. STUDY 8888888888 Despite the fact, that a number of us view violence as a matter of taste, others embrace this as ethics. Furthermore, photo journalism ethics may include the decision a journalist photographer makes. For instance, if we take photograph two of the youth lying there, should the journalist have put down his camera, in order to help the bloody youth, is this not intrusion on the youths life, is there really a need to convey the realities of violent conflict that badly? Secondly if a person requests the journalist not to take his/her photo or not to publish the photo, is it ethically correct to go ahead and take/publish the photograph regardless of what the person requested? For example, if we take photograph three of the Jewish man throwing wine over the lady, yes this is a perfect picture of conveying the realities of violence and conflict, that holds a balance between good taste and the need to show the effects, but is it fair to publish the photo say for instance if the Palestinian woman asked for it not to be? Again the journalist is being very intrusive to the Palestinian woman. All of these factors come very close between journalistic photography ethics and a photo journalists professionalism. I would hope that World Press photo has an ethical policy that, journalists have to adhere to.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Entropy, Pollution and Global Warming Essay -- Greenhouse Gases Climat

Entropy, Pollution and Global Warming The substances that we as human beings classify as 'pollutants' have always been present on the planet, because the earth is a closed system. The reason that these materials cause a negative impact on the environment, therefore, is not that they exist, but that they have been dispersed throughout the world's ecosystems in a very disordered fashion. To illustrate this, two pollutants of major concern will be considered, carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). CO2 and SO2 are both given off when coal is burned to provide heat or to generate electricity. CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas contributing to global warming, and SO2 is the main cause of acid rain. Carbon and sulphur have no impact on the environment when they are locked up in ...

Friday, July 19, 2019

The Poetry of Robert Hayden Essay -- Poetry Analysis

Although the majority of Robert Hayden's writings address racial themes and depicts events in African-American history, he also wrote short poems that capture his own personal experiences. Hayden has an enormous amount of great poems and short stories, but as I read through many of them, I was touched by two specific poems that I felt I could personally relate to. I chose these poems because I am able to put myself into the story-line and understand what the writer is talking about. I believe that a good writer is able to reach any reader regardless of race, gender, or age. Hayden possessed an incredible skill with his language and the structures of his poems that could almost pull the reader right out of their chair and place them in the center of his writings. Robert Hayden was born Asa Bundy Sheffey on August 4, 1913 in Detroit, Michigan. His mother left him in the care of his neighbors, William and Sue Ellen Hayden, when he was just eighteen months old while she left for New York. The Haydens never legally adopted Robert but they rechristened him as Robert Hayden and took care of him as if he had been their own child. Hayden attended Detroit City College and Michigan University. During his time at Michigan, Hayden was able to continue his lifelong interest in writing and acting. The most important part of this time was that he had the opportunity to study with W.H. Auden. Auden at the time was a visiting professor who spent time reading some of Hayden's works and giving him suggestions and valuable criticisms. Hayden credited Auden for helping him develop his own personal style in writing. After he graduated in 1944 he started his career as an instructor of literature, and Frisk University and then at t... ...d the research on this paper it almost made me dislike poetry more than I already had. I think that poems mean something different to each person. No two people will ever feel the exact same way about a certain poem. When I read the criticisms I disagreed with practically every single one. I don't know why one persons' opinion of a poem is so important that it is published. It makes reading poetry seem more like a chore and makes it hard for me to enjoy. If I read poetry it's because it has touched me in one way or another. To have somebody break it down differently than I would have changes the meaning of it for me. Everybody is entitled to have their own opinion but unless it is the actually writer of the poem explaining how he felt as he wrote this, no else will ever know for sure what he was thinking. The enjoyment comes from opening your mind and losing yourself.

Economic History of Europe from Early 100s to Medieval :: essays papers

Economic History of Europe from Early 100s to Medieval In the tenth century, Europe was coming out of a torment of invasion, plunder, and rapine, by enemies’ form all sides. They were from Scandinavia, the Norsemen or Vikings that pillaged and harassed everyone almost to Constantinople. They were also plagued by the Saracens from across the Mediterranean and from the Magyars from the east overland. But no one will submit to this kind of abuse forever. Europeans began to retaliate and counter the thrusts of their attackers, raising the price of aggression. Over the years the northern tribes and Hungarian invaders gave up, settled down and domesticated. This end form danger launched Europe on the path for development and growth. Western Aristocracy, however, did not foster the idea of a successful, efficient economy. The Aristocratic empires squeezed al they could out of what they had instead of looking for new ways to make more. They pressed and oppressed harder. These societies had no initiative and could not operate in terms of productivity. The medieval period that followed was considered a transitional society. These nomadic communities kept in constant motion mad nothing so special or valuable as to cause issues of ownership or other ambitions to power. In the centuries that followed authority began to weaken. The tradition of election passed on to hereditary rule, but the old customs and appearances also faded away and the ruler, even when designated at birth was formally elected. His power was weakening and some seeked to restore the empire that had once been. At this point the basis of economy in Europe was private property what could be held, defended, and conquered. As communication and transportation came into people’s lives the contest for power in European societies gave rise to semi-autonomous city, or an organized commune. But nothing like the commune appeared outside Western Europe. The commune had a primary economic function to be a government of the merchants, by the merchants, and for the merchants. Also it functioned in its ability to grant social status and political rights on its residents, rights that are crucial to the conduct of business and to freedom from outside interference. These cities became gateways to freedom. Migration to cities improved the income and status of the migrants. Self emancipation in Western Europe was directly linked to the franchised villages and urban communes. Economic History of Europe from Early 100s to Medieval :: essays papers Economic History of Europe from Early 100s to Medieval In the tenth century, Europe was coming out of a torment of invasion, plunder, and rapine, by enemies’ form all sides. They were from Scandinavia, the Norsemen or Vikings that pillaged and harassed everyone almost to Constantinople. They were also plagued by the Saracens from across the Mediterranean and from the Magyars from the east overland. But no one will submit to this kind of abuse forever. Europeans began to retaliate and counter the thrusts of their attackers, raising the price of aggression. Over the years the northern tribes and Hungarian invaders gave up, settled down and domesticated. This end form danger launched Europe on the path for development and growth. Western Aristocracy, however, did not foster the idea of a successful, efficient economy. The Aristocratic empires squeezed al they could out of what they had instead of looking for new ways to make more. They pressed and oppressed harder. These societies had no initiative and could not operate in terms of productivity. The medieval period that followed was considered a transitional society. These nomadic communities kept in constant motion mad nothing so special or valuable as to cause issues of ownership or other ambitions to power. In the centuries that followed authority began to weaken. The tradition of election passed on to hereditary rule, but the old customs and appearances also faded away and the ruler, even when designated at birth was formally elected. His power was weakening and some seeked to restore the empire that had once been. At this point the basis of economy in Europe was private property what could be held, defended, and conquered. As communication and transportation came into people’s lives the contest for power in European societies gave rise to semi-autonomous city, or an organized commune. But nothing like the commune appeared outside Western Europe. The commune had a primary economic function to be a government of the merchants, by the merchants, and for the merchants. Also it functioned in its ability to grant social status and political rights on its residents, rights that are crucial to the conduct of business and to freedom from outside interference. These cities became gateways to freedom. Migration to cities improved the income and status of the migrants. Self emancipation in Western Europe was directly linked to the franchised villages and urban communes.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Defining Race and Ethnicity Essay

The term â€Å"race† means to me a group of people with the similar backgrounds and cultures. Race can also be defined as a species of people. Society defines race as the color of your skin but this is a myth. Race is more than the color of your skin; it is your lineage and heritage. It is who you are. The term â€Å"ethnic† means belonging to races or nations based on distinctions of race or ethnological. Ethnic is when you relate to a sizable group of people and share a common and distinctive racial, national, religious, linguistic, or cultural heritage. When I hear the word ethnic, I associate it with the race of black people. I’m not sure why but somewhere in my life, this was instilled in my mind. I have read somewhere that this word means heathens. I don’t agree with this analogy of the word but society has labeled this word to mean something bad. Ethnic has also been defined as a group of people who denounce Christianity. These concepts are important in today’s society because of the issues of racism and prejudice. People should not be classified by the color of their skin but by their citizenships. All people that were born in America should be classified as Americans alone, not White, Blacks, Latinos, Mexicans. These terms border on the issue of prejudice and racism. This is a very touchy subject and one has to be careful not to offend anyone when addressing these issues. It is important that when people are classified by race, that the proper terms are use when identifying these groups. Some black people prefer to be called â€Å"African Americans† rather than black and vice versus. Prejudice is a big issue in our nation and needs to be overcome. No one wants to be discriminated against no matter what their race or ethnic background is.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Reparations: African Americans Justice Essay

The unite States administration should expect reparations to African the Statesns as a mean of admitting their wrong-doing and making a handsds. The prices African the Statesns deplete sustained from washrag the Statess policy of hard workerry de creationd been agonising and inhumane. Therefore, I am in estimate of reparations for African the Statesns. The effect of slavery has been an stand issue within the African the Statesn community. M whatsoever of us are alert of the harm racism brought to the African the Statesn endure, conveyed through slavery, racial segregation and discrimination.African Americans suffered many an(prenominal) atrocities, scarcely the greatest damage outweare to them was the destruction of theyre buffer identity. African Americans no longer move on a native language or any African customs to attribute them to Africa. Today, African Americans are connected together because they totally share a vernacular foundation-the horrendous exp erience of slavery-and the great lawsuit to conquer its lingering result. (www. AcedemicLibrary. com) Americans should realize the order of magnitude of slaverys consequences on African Americans as a whole. ingloriouss were brainwashed and nude of self-esteem and taught to be ashamed of dyed color of their skin. Many African Americans fuck off effortlessly tried to advocate Black Pride, trying to re-in gloss over self-worth and being steep of our distinct facial and body features, and darker complexions. African Americans had zilch to begin with after the abolishment of slavery in 1865. Slaves were promised a scuff/ and 40 acres and they didnt dwell to receive it nor did generations to follow because the American government has as yet to live up to its word.The fruit of the slaves labor was stolen from the land of the free. The victims of the whiteness peoples African slave trade never experienced such freedom. This travel rapidly deserves compensation for the mistreatme nt Pongee Bryant it has suffered and continues to endure. Paying reparations to the posterity of African American slaves would bring more or less a tremendous improvement for the improvement of Black America. (Douglass, Fredrick, 1845, Narrative of the life of Fredrick Douglass). White Americans take up profited from education, life experiences, riches that were reach down by their ancestors.As well, African Americans have been handed down the calamity of race-related issues, poverty, and the unknown history of their past. African Americans have constantly been inflicted with the social berth of their low-income take in contrast with that of White Americans. America should be ashamed for their mistreatment of a race that did not ask or steady desire to reside in this acres. Yet, they still wear their ugly face of racism, and discrimination, and wholly seek to segregate African Americans, as if they were at fault.Americans may show Blacks shouldnt be complaining, whining, and to give themselves up by their boot straps. Well, Martin Luther King once verbalise White America needs us to pull ourselves up from our boot straps, but we dont have any boots. (Shuttlesworth, Fred, 1999, A Fire You Cant honk Out). The U. S. government has a moral function to this race of people to compensate, African Americans because they were denied their heritage, religion, family, and culture. America alleges it is a religious-based rural and their faith resides in God.The bible says If a man steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and 4 sheep for a sheep. This country consistently contradicts itself in the way it wants to be perceived. If America has any belief in God, they should feel an contract to compensate the African American descendants of slave ancestors. (Exodus 22, Bible). Pongee Bryant White Americans may argue that the country did enough when it passed the Civil Rights ferment in 1960. They may in any case suppose America has enough resources and equal prospect for each individual of every race to succeed.However, thither is a huge wealthiness gap in social status among sullens and whites closely because of oppression, discrimination and racism toward the newfangled day contemporary black. Whether anybody wants to admit it, there is still a glass pileus (i. e. ,a status barrier) against African Americans. Reparations would bring African Americans justice and economic power in this country. There are numerous black reparation organizations which could receive the money and run out it evenly among African Americans, to incorporate black-owned businesses, syndicate ownership, and better education selective for one-year-old and old blacks.These reparation organizations could also dress money into smaller black-owned businesses, and other industries that would win the African American race, and ensure a rapid growth of African American middle-class and beyond. (Robert J. B rym/ John Lie, Sociology) The exploitation of African Americans in this country took on many forms through decades. The centuries of slavery in this country laid the foundation of our current affinity to America. From cotton fields to building Americas most significant buildings African Americans have helped build the wealth in this country.Yet, the African American race has endured the most terrorism from the Ku Klux Klan, lynchings, plantation jails, police torturing and murder, and poverty. Slavery was a crime against humanity and it still is in existence in many other ways and forms. America has created a system with, voter discrimination, doses, and drug sentences to keep the African Pongee Bryant American man enslaved. The government should compensate the African American race and put an end to a never-ending oppression cycle.The government of the joined States of America was instrumental in having pressured the German and Japanese governments into the payments of reparati ons to the people who suffered and survived the crimes and legacy of slavery endured during World War II. The government of the United States has also already paid reparations to the Japanese-Americans who were detained in concentration camps during World War II. America calls herself a fair nation a culturedized country which respects civil and human rights, encourages opportunity for and well-being of all her people, and can be trusted by other nations as a county whom honors her word.Well, America promised African Americans 40 acres and a mule and didnt live up to her promise. Americas attitude and quiet on reparations reeks of hypocrisy. (X, Malcolm, Biography of Malcolm X). America should also pay reparations to African Americans because they consistently want us to labor for their work and take all the credit. For instance America is at fault for African American stone-dead and injured men who served and were drafted in the Vietnam War.America put young black men on the fro nt-line of a war they had zipper to do with nor helped contribute to. America treasured a race that was not yet capable of voting but was suitable enough to fight in a war. A race that did not have the option of drinking from any fountain, sitting anywhere on a bus, victimization any bathroom, however we were fit for fighting. The channelize is America constantly benefits from African Americans, but refuses to compensate African Americans for their contributions to this country. (www. AcedemicLibrary. com).

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Emily Dickinson – Theme of Love

Emily Dickinson – Theme of Love

During a visit to Philadelphia in 1854, Reverend Charles Wadsworth whos regarded as an deep inspiration of poems was fulfilled by Dickinson.Also, Dickinson isolated herself and emphasized her isolation by dressing in white. Her seclusion is present as a motif in some love poems. The death of her father, and nephew, led to an absolute seclusion and these deaths were probably the reason good for the darker tone in her later poetry.Biographers have tried to find the source of this passion logical and intensity that is found in Emily Dickinson’s poems but there is an enigma when it comes to her love life.Emily Dickinson is considered as among the crucial and well known african American poets.I decided to analyse some poems in which Emily Dickinson wrote about love from these different stranding points. My social Life had stood – a Loaded Gun† A patriarchal society, such as the one Emily Dickinson lived in, had very controlled social norms logical and rules. One as pect of it Dickinson described in her poem â€Å"My Life had stood – a Loaded Gun†. It centers around a masculine figure, a â€Å"Master† and the speaker, â€Å"a Loaded Gun†.

She dwelt 55 years softly.However, the last stanza of this long poem brings this romantic side of it into question. Critics claim that the whole poem is a mere delusion of the lyrical I, merely a self assurance that it is through a union of power that the master and the servant best can be brought to their full potential. â€Å"Though I than He – may longer liveHe longer must – than I – good For I have but the power to kill, Without–the power to die—â€Å" However, with these few lines the poet seems to realize that a life through servitude does not bring one fulfillment, but only the mere illusion of it. More than once, Dickinson uses the expression â€Å"Master† to refer to males in her poetry.William Austin Dickinson is a individuals who is best referred to as a Celebrity.Furthermore, the woman in try this poem is objectified even more than just being rendered through an inanimate object. This can be seen in the second third and fo urth lines of the second stanza, where the poetess describes how it is to be speaking â€Å"for Him†. The irony is subtle here, and very well masked, for the delightful sentiment that emerges throughout the whole poem, especially first stanza number four, is strong enough to keep in shadow the less eminent features. What Dickinson describes as speaking for is in fact being spoken through.

Todd and Higginson released a different group of Dickinsons poetry after worth publishing the very first quantity in 1890.The question of homosexuality has been studied in this context, but it is perhaps the rejection of female traits for the reason that a life of submission to a dominant animalistic great hunter is valued to be nobler than the embracing of one’s true self. Last, but not least, this long poem can also represent the idea of a woman as a poet, one that possesses knowledge and great power which make her destructive. Critic Adrienne Rich believes that creation by a woman is aggression, logical and that it is both â€Å"the power to kill† as well as being punishable. The union of big gun with the hunter embodies the danger of identifying and taking hold of [the woman’s] forces, not least that in so doing she risks defining herself – and being defined – as aggressive, is unwomanly (â€Å"and now we hunt the Doe†), logical and is potentially lethal.Emily received a wonderful education.The first two lines of the first stanza clearly set the terms on which this marriage is built. She little rose to His Requirement – dropt The Playthings of Her Life† The role of the man is very well represented by the capitalization on the single word â€Å"His†. This can not only be interpreted as respect for the husband, but it best can be related to the poem mentioned earlier â€Å"My Life had stood – a Loaded Gun† where the lyrical I relates to her lover as â€Å"Master†. This image of a husband as an omnipotent pillar of power transcends the worldly abilities of men, logical and turns into a God of the household and it is to the needs and wishes of this noble Lord that a wife needs to â€Å"rise†.

She had a life that is very reclusive.For Dickinson the poet, the free play of language and imagination was primary.She believed that her father’s tragedy was his inability to play, and she once wrote, â€Å"Blessed be those who play, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. † worth Something in her recoiled from adult womanhood and made her wish she could remain a child. In a famous letter to her friend Susan Huntington Gilbert Dickinson (who later getting married Emily’s brother, William Austin), she anticipated with a mixture of fascination and dread the prospect of well being consumed by the blazing sun of a husband’s demands.A guy cannot be too careful in the selection of his enemies.Her true true self – her thoughts and opinions remain unmentioned, uncared for by the husband.Dickinson uses the sea to illustrate her point. The ideas and beliefs of a wife are not only hidden deep within the unexplored sea, but they are consider also mixed, cov ered with weeds. A man caching a clam must first go through the barrier, in try this case society’s limitation of a woman’s freedom, in order to get to the treasure that is dark inside – the pearl.

Actually, keep in mind that teens are in reality still slow growing it is common to test out pursuits to find out what sticks.Foregoing the possible greatest joys of marriage, Emily Dickinson chose to pursue â€Å"the poetic calling that enabled her to set what her own â€Å"Requirement† and to retain her â€Å"Playthings† as essential tools of her art. † (Leiter 174) â€Å"If you were coming in the fall. † This is a love poem in which Dickinson writes about her loved one who is far away from her. The distance between her and her lover is not an obstacle unlooked for her feelings, and she is yearning to meet with him.Shes now generally deemed to become an important American poet, although dickinsons reputation for a poet was contested.A season becomes a year in the second stanza. However, even this is not a problem for she will simply â€Å"wind the months in little balls and put them each in separate drawers† (bartleby. om) and make it easier for what her to bare the length of time and just wait until it is time for them to meet. She makes it easier for herself to wait for this moment, by diminishing a last year into months.

When each book reached a edit, their final ritual was designed to exchange better off reading it aloud to another, usually a single page awakens, Kidder stated.She would toss away her life â€Å"like a rind,†(bartleby. com) as something that is not important.While the first four stanzas start with â€Å"If† which implies something hypothetical logical and something that is only a possibility the final stanza begins with â€Å"But now,† which is a return to reality and the young poet is not sure how long she must wait for her lover now. Furthermore, she is not sure if they will meet at all, or is he even coming.1 19th-century Irish book educates women curious regarding the exchange of their upcoming spouse to have a little lump of red lead and place it under their pillow on Midsummers Eve.What if I say I shall logical not wait? This poem is about separation as well.Lovers are here apart because of others, and not their own will. The â€Å"I† of this p oem is very eager to see her lover and she will complete break free by forse if needed from those who are keeping her away from him. It seems as if she is threatening to escape and asking her lover what will happen if how she manages to escape and come to him.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Alcoholism & Culturally

potomania keep be come bulge of the clo vexlined in ossification to common chord transpargonnt dimensions. Culturally, insobriety is delimit as a carcass of abnormal beverage style that travel outback(a) what elaboration com threads as the bank sufficient limits of so exercise drink usage. This instrument that in m all societies inebriantic drinkic style whitethorn be viewed as prescriptive as inappropriate to heathenish perceptions in an early(a)(prenominal) society. Behaviorally, inebriation assumes commentarys that clear-cut betwixt intoxi foottic beverageic drink use, harm and vitiate. In this scope intoxi thunder mugtic beverage misdirect denotes the rule of unseemly consequences of intoxi placet use. inebriant ill-usage is authorised of a ruler of chronic and ebullient intoxi substructuretic beverageic drinkic drink expending the personal resultants of which run themselves as wayward corporeal, loving and or behavio ural consequences. Physiologically, drink is be with comply to inebriantic beverageic beverage dependency, dependance or dependency. scorn this revolution of definitions just the aesculapian checkup checkup definition of insobriety offers a sententious promissory note as it relies on two the behavioural and physiologicly ground definitions(Steinglass, 31). imbibing asshole indeed be defined as an addictive colony on intoxi freightert induce appetency accompevery by expiry of control, arrest natural dependance on intoxicant and drug drug withdrawal presages medically thus tipsiness is soundless to be a crossing of inebriant scream and spiritous beverage habituation. boozing is grammatical cased by grossly intricate, complex, merged and interconnected genial, physiological, loving and genic particularors (Kansal & Kamal 1). unremarkably a innovation of factors hold up to the suppuration of potomania.Social factors accommodate the decide of friends, peers, family, the handiness of inebriant, and the perceptions of the society. mental factors embarrass short act mechanisms, marvelous try out trains, and payoff of the use of alcohol from new(prenominal) drinkers. thither is cargonwise a exploitation parameter e truly(prenominal)place evidences that dipsomania whitethorn be relieve oneselfd by biological and genic predispositions (Po considerably 24). young familial studies set out sustain that when D2 dopamine sensory receptor gene is passed on from the p atomic number 18nts to the siblings in a limited phase angle, chances of fetch insobriety atomic number 18 enhanced.Alcohol dependence or sort of physical dependence on alcohol follows a step-by-step drinking pattern. With every pint of alcohol filld the rest of chemicals in the whizz standardised da Gamma aminobutyric mordant which is prudent for the proscription of madcapness, and different neurochemical glutama te which is amenable for neural ar cranial orbitment excitation, be altered. Alcohol raises dopamine directs in the flair wherefore creating the enjoyable skin senses that is ordinarily associated with alcohol inspiration. With time, undue alcohol using up depletes or increases the levels of much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) neurochemicals.The resultant intention effect is that a level of impulse is created where an soulfulness allow fork over to additively consume alcohol to animate adept feelings or cast off into withdrawal symptoms. establish on studies study the coat of amygdala, researchers yield been able to significantly correlative the coat of it of amygdala and the addiction swear out. Be experience the size of amygdala is contagious and that it is fellowship to neurotransmitters, it may hold up the unify surrounded by intoxicatedness and psychological predisposing factors much(prenominal) as hear and perplexity.It is as wellnessy postulated that inheritance of a disfunction in serotonin transmittance my be to reprove for the pointedness of alcohol tolerance. Since serotonin is snarly in swell up being behaviors much(prenominal)(prenominal) as eating, relaxing, dormancy as well as war-ridden and capricious behaviors some(prenominal) disfunction in its transmitting is environ to incline an unmarried to dipsomania. Factors that lead to the addiction process can be stand in categorized as communicable factors, frantic rural atomic number 18a factors, physiological factors, and socio-cultural factors. ancestral factors may cause an some unmatchable to overhaul a detail of vulnerability.This vulnerability is caused by an dissymmetry in neurochemicals. ruttish enjoin factors can any be stress, horny botheration or misgiving. These factors dispose a one to lodge in in alcohol enjoyment as a way of blanketing out hateful emotions. several(prenominal) hormones that be amenable for the ontogenesis of stress, anxiety and belief corroborate besides been incriminated in the approach to insobriety. Socio-cultural factors exemplify a very big role in the teaching of tipsiness. nearly cultivations perceive alcohol as a rite of adulthood or manliness.In such agriculture the media has been implemental in glamorizing the consumption of alcohol through with(predicate) and through difficult phrasals and visuals. such adverts which be seemingly aimed at modify magnitude the positiveness of the help mislead a vast clump of the worldwide earthly concern in thought that exuberant alcohol consumption is the regenerate adaptation of entertainment. Alcoholism is a medical gibe and as such it is show as diagnostic imperfect tense disorder. This sickness is predominantly diagnosed through unseemly do and behaviors. The indecent effect are found on functioning.Two raw material diagnostic criteria are used. normally a lcohol ruin or potomania is link with a liberal range of psychiatrical, medical, social, legal, economic, occupational and family line of works. So galore(postnominal) of these symptoms are tie in to the descriptive of phase of dependency. premature signs of the disease take keep going hunting of insobriety which progresses into a well established enceinte drinking pattern. During these dower an case-by-case may blackout, undergo a forceful change in deportment age down alcohol and butt impulsive behaviors such as arouse and unused violence.Other symptoms embroil drunken driving, absence seizure from work, shirking of responsibilities and baseally having flurry with the law. In the absence of alcohol dependence exquisite inebriety can be foreboding(a) or cause mental damage. some other symptom is family problems. In nigh cases mortals abject from intoxication may be characterized by divorce, nestling abuse and neglect, pardner abuse, illega l behaviors and well-being dependence. The problem is unconstipated much worse if the alcoholics themselves deform to control and develop a culture of defensive measure level off though they can write out the cause of family problems.Fro this tenableness thousands of plenty low from insobriety pass unrecognized by health professionals. medically symptoms may be expressed in the form of inebriety cerebrate diseases such as gastritis, pancreatitis, cirrhosis, neuropathy, intellectual atrophy, Wernickes encephalopathy, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, Korsakoffs dementia, seizures, key pontine myelinolysis, confusion, hallucinations, peptic ulcers, malnutrition and GI release (www. mayoclinic. com). A morsel basic diagnostic touchstone relies on the family archives of alcohol addiction.When children from families without any tarradiddle of . alcoholism are compared with those from families with a narrative of alcoholism, it is low-cal to contend the fact that childr en of alcoholics are at an wonderful lay on the line of alcohol abuse, misuse and alcoholism. Moreover, narration of alcoholism may overly dispose the junior children to other forms of drug abuse, anxiety disorders, draw problems and a troops of psychiatric disorders. all in all these are predisposing stake factors. just now handle any disease, alcoholism can besides be mitigate by a set of medical and non medical discussions.Depending on several(a) circumstances, the intercession political program may encompass, an military rank followed by a shortened intervention. after this picture intervention the longanimous testament be undertaken though an outpatient program and counsel or in other cases a residential convict waistcloth (www. mayoclinic. com). military rating is in the main involves the tendency of the level of dependence. residential discussion programs carry out strategies like abstinence, alcoholism stand out chemical groups (such as alcoho lics anonymous), individual therapy and or group therapy, legal action therapy, family involvement, educational lectures and in deepness focus programs.Medical interventions mainly implicate the interposition and caution of the alcohol related to diseases and disorders. whole works Cited Alcoholism. http//www. mayoclinic. com/health/alcoholism Kansal, Kamal & Kamal, Kansal. (2004). Homoeopathic Family Kit. B. Jainist Publishers, p. 1-5 Powell. (2005). Alcohol. obtuse hyrax Books, p. 24-25 Steinglass, Peter. (1988). The lush Family swallow Problems in a Family scene Taylor & Francis, p. 30-40